Gear Technology Basics – Application Aspects
Explore manufacturing methods and considerations, inspection and quality control, materials and heat treatment, drawing data requirements, specifications, basics of load capacity rating, and lubrication types and methods. With a strong emphasis on the proper selection, design application and use, rather than fabrication, designers, users and beginning gear technologists can all benefit from the curriculum.
Raymond J. Drago is Chief Engineer for Drive Systems Technology, Inc., a mechanical power transmission consulting organization that he founded in 1976. Drago holds a master’s degree in structural engineering from Drexel University (1980), a master’s degree in engineering from ... read more
Benefits and Learning Outcomes
- Further your understanding of the manufacturing processes that may be used to bring design concepts to reality
- Create drawings that convey full, complete and unambiguous definitions of gears
- Learn the basic methods of analysis for each of the major design factors (wear, scoring, strength and durability)
2.1 Introduction – A brief introduction of the material to be presented and its relation to the overall two-part Fundamentals of Gear Design Seminar Pair.
2.2 Manufacturing Methods and Considerations – A wide variety of basic process for producing gears (both forming and generating) is presented in general terms. Over two dozen variations of these basis processes are compared, in tabular form, for applicability and use and then discussed qualitatively, in detail. The intent of this discussion is to better aid the gear designer by providing a full understanding of the manufacturing processes that may be used to bring design concepts to reality. In order to accomplish this objective, several unique nontraditional manufacturing approaches are also discussed to drive home the range of possibilities available to the creative designer.
2.3 Inspection and Quality Control – Once a gear has been designed and manufactured, it must be inspected to determine the degree to which it meets the specifications. This topic is first approached by discussing the various general quality control methods that may be used: process control, elemental inspection, composite inspection, etc. A discussion of the various individual tooth parameters to be inspected is interwoven with an understanding of gear quality control as a monitor of the manufacturing process rather than simply as a go/no-go process. The relation of individual tooth parameters to the successful operation of a gear is presented in a general format. The qualitative use of a variety of inspection machines is also presented.
2.4 Materials and Heat Treatment – Many different material and heat treatment combinations may be utilized in the design of a gear system. This presentation explains the relative advantages and disadvantages of the commonly used combinations along with a good treatment of some not-so-common combinations. Manufacturing considerations related to these material and heat treatment combinations are also presented. The materials covered range from metallic to nonmetallic.
2.5 Drawing Data Requirements, Specifications and Formats – In order to obtain the results intended, it is absolutely essential that the engineering drawings convey a full, complete and unambiguous definition of the gear and its associated material, heat treatment and inspection requirements. The most common formats and a definition of the data required for each are presented.
2.6 Basics of Load Capacity Rating – While specific load rating analyses will not be presented (See PC Applications in Parallel Axis Gear Design Seminar for an in-depth load rating presentation including Windows software), the basic methods of analysis for each of the major design factors (wear, scoring, strength and durability) are presented and related to the type of gear being treated.
2.7 Lubrication Types and Methods – The need for and the purposes of lubrication in general, the different types of lubricants available, additives and their functions, methods of application, and selection tables are presented and discussed. Design guidelines for housing and part design for efficient lubrication delivery are also discussed.
A knowledge of geometry, trigonometry, and elementary algebra is required. Basic strength of materials is helpful but not essential.