*Courses numbered 300-699 are Undergraduate/Graduate. Courses numbered 700 and above are Graduate only.*

**PHYSICS 408 Experiments in Linear Electronics**

Transistor and integrated circuit characteristics; electronic measurement and control.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(P).

**Course Rules:**No cr for students w/cr in ElecEng 330(R).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Fall 2015.

**PHYSICS 408G Experiments in Linear Electronics**

Transistor and integrated circuit characteristics; electronic measurement and control.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(P).

**Course Rules:**No cr for students w/cr in ElecEng 330(R).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Fall 2015.

**PHYSICS 411 Mechanics**

Kinematics, vector analysis, conservation laws, oscillations, variational methods, chaos, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(NP).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2020, Spring 2019.

**PHYSICS 411G Mechanics**

Kinematics, vector analysis, conservation laws, oscillations, variational methods, chaos, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(NP).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2020, Spring 2019.

**PHYSICS 420 Electricity and Magnetism I**

Electrostatics, capacitance, boundary value problems, mulipole expansion, dielectrics, magnetostatics, vector potential, magnetic properties of matter, motional emf, inductance, Maxwell's equations in differential form.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(NP); a grade of B- or better in Math 321(P); or Math 321(P) and a grade of B- or better in Physics 370(P); or grad st.

**Course Rules:**Counts as repeat of 2 cr of Physics 421.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020.

**PHYSICS 420G Electricity and Magnetism I**

Electrostatics, capacitance, boundary value problems, mulipole expansion, dielectrics, magnetostatics, vector potential, magnetic properties of matter, motional emf, inductance, Maxwell's equations in differential form.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(NP); a grade of B- or better in Math 321(P); or Math 321(P) and a grade of B- or better in Physics 370(P); or grad st.

**Course Rules:**Counts as repeat of 2 cr of Physics 421.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020.

**PHYSICS 422 Electricity and Magnetism II**

Conservation laws in electrodynamics, Maxwell's stress tensor, electromagnetic waves, absorption, dispersion, reflection and transmission of plane electromagnetic waves, wave guides, retarded potentials, radiation, electrodynamics and relativity.

**Prerequisites:**jr st, C or better in PHYSICS 420(P); or grad st.

**Course Rules:**Counts as repeat of 2 cr of PHYSICS 421.

**Last Taught:**Spring 2020, Spring 2019.

**PHYSICS 422G Electricity and Magnetism II**

Conservation laws in electrodynamics, Maxwell's stress tensor, electromagnetic waves, absorption, dispersion, reflection and transmission of plane electromagnetic waves, wave guides, retarded potentials, radiation, electrodynamics and relativity.

**Prerequisites:**jr st, C or better in PHYSICS 420(P); or grad st.

**Course Rules:**Counts as repeat of 2 cr of PHYSICS 421.

**Last Taught:**Spring 2020, Spring 2019.

**PHYSICS 441 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics I**

Historical background and experimental basis, De Broglie waves, correspondence principle, uncertainty principle, Schroedinger equation; hydrogen atom, electron spin, Pauli Principle, applications of wave mechanics.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 309(NP); Math 321(C).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020.

**PHYSICS 441G Introduction to Quantum Mechanics I**

Historical background and experimental basis, De Broglie waves, correspondence principle, uncertainty principle, Schroedinger equation; hydrogen atom, electron spin, Pauli Principle, applications of wave mechanics.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 309(NP); Math 321(C).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020.

**PHYSICS 442 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics II**

Continuation of PHYSICS 441, emphasizing perturbation theory and applications to multi-electron systems, including atoms, molecules, and solids.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; C or better in PHYSICS 441(NP); or grad st.

**Last Taught:**Spring 2020, Spring 2019.

**PHYSICS 442G Introduction to Quantum Mechanics II**

Continuation of PHYSICS 441, emphasizing perturbation theory and applications to multi-electron systems, including atoms, molecules, and solids.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; C or better in PHYSICS 441(NP); or grad st.

**Last Taught:**Spring 2020, Spring 2019.

**PHYSICS 497 Study Abroad:**

Designed to enroll students in UWM sponsored program before course work level, content, and credits are determined and/or in specially prepared program course work.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; acceptance for Study Abroad Prog.

**Course Rules:**May be retaken w/chg in topic.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2014, Spring 1998.

**PHYSICS 497G Study Abroad:**

Designed to enroll students in UWM sponsored program before course work level, content, and credits are determined and/or in specially prepared program course work.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; acceptance for Study Abroad Prog.

**Course Rules:**May be retaken w/chg in topic.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2014, Spring 1998.

**PHYSICS 501 Special Topics: Mathematical Models of Physical Problems I**

Selected topics in mathematics for study of the techniques and procedures for stating physical problems in mathematical terms and the physical interpretation of mathematical solutions.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(P); Math 234(P).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Fall 2019.

**PHYSICS 501G Special Topics: Mathematical Models of Physical Problems I**

Selected topics in mathematics for study of the techniques and procedures for stating physical problems in mathematical terms and the physical interpretation of mathematical solutions.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(P); Math 234(P).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Fall 2019.

**PHYSICS 502 Special Topics: Mathematical Models of Physical Problems II**

More selected topics in mathematical models.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(P); Math 234(P). Physics 501(R).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2007, Spring 2006.

**PHYSICS 502G Special Topics: Mathematical Models of Physical Problems II**

More selected topics in mathematical models.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(P); Math 234(P). Physics 501(R).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2007, Spring 2006.

**PHYSICS 515 Statistical Mechanics**

Brief survey of thermodynamics; statistical mechanics; classical and quantum gases.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 317(P) & 441(P).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Spring 2020.

**PHYSICS 515G Statistical Mechanics**

Brief survey of thermodynamics; statistical mechanics; classical and quantum gases.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 317(P) & 441(P).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Spring 2020.

**PHYSICS 517 Special Relativity**

Relativistic kinematics, the Lorentz transformation, tensor calculus, applications to motion of particles, electromagnetism.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 411(R) & 421(R).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2017, Fall 2014.

**PHYSICS 517G Special Relativity**

Relativistic kinematics, the Lorentz transformation, tensor calculus, applications to motion of particles, electromagnetism.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 411(R) & 421(R).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2017, Fall 2014.

**PHYSICS 531 Principles of Quantum Mechanics I**

Vector and Hilbert spaces; Schroedinger equation in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions; systems of many particles; symmetries; angular momentum.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Fall 2019.

**PHYSICS 531G Principles of Quantum Mechanics I**

Vector and Hilbert spaces; Schroedinger equation in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions; systems of many particles; symmetries; angular momentum.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Fall 2019.

**PHYSICS 532 Principles of Quantum Mechanics II**

Continuation of 531. Spin; hydrogen atom; variational methods; WKB approximation; perturbation theory; scattering theory; Dirac equation.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 531(P).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2020, Spring 2019.

**PHYSICS 532G Principles of Quantum Mechanics II**

Continuation of 531. Spin; hydrogen atom; variational methods; WKB approximation; perturbation theory; scattering theory; Dirac equation.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 531(P).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2020, Spring 2019.

**PHYSICS 541 Elementary Particles**

Accelerators and detectors; special unitary groups; quark model of hadrons; Feynman diagrams; electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions of quarks and leptons; Higgs boson.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2011, Fall 2009.

**PHYSICS 541G Elementary Particles**

Accelerators and detectors; special unitary groups; quark model of hadrons; Feynman diagrams; electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions of quarks and leptons; Higgs boson.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2011, Fall 2009.

**PHYSICS 551 Introduction to Solid State Physics I**

Crystal structure, reciprocal lattice; crystal binding; elastic waves; phonons, lattice vibrations; thermal properties of insulators; free electron Fermi gas. Band structure; semiconductor crystals; Fermi surface.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P) or cons instr.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Fall 2018.

**PHYSICS 551G Introduction to Solid State Physics I**

Crystal structure, reciprocal lattice; crystal binding; elastic waves; phonons, lattice vibrations; thermal properties of insulators; free electron Fermi gas. Band structure; semiconductor crystals; Fermi surface.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P) or cons instr.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Fall 2018.

**PHYSICS 575 Vacuum Science and Technology**

Viscous and molecular flow, vacuum materials and seals, metal-to-ceramic seals, evaporation and vapor pressures, vacuum pumps, vacuum gauges, mass spectrographs, chemical reactions at surfaces, outgassing.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2011, Fall 2003.

**PHYSICS 575G Vacuum Science and Technology**

Viscous and molecular flow, vacuum materials and seals, metal-to-ceramic seals, evaporation and vapor pressures, vacuum pumps, vacuum gauges, mass spectrographs, chemical reactions at surfaces, outgassing.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2011, Fall 2003.

**PHYSICS 610 The Art and Science of Teaching Physics**

Participants critique lectures, videotapes of experienced teachers, each other; address conceptual problems facing beginning students; gain familiarity with demonstrations, classroom technology; discuss their own classes.

**Prerequisites:**appt as undergrad TA or grad st.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2019, Fall 2018.

**PHYSICS 610G The Art and Science of Teaching Physics**

Participants critique lectures, videotapes of experienced teachers, each other; address conceptual problems facing beginning students; gain familiarity with demonstrations, classroom technology; discuss their own classes.

**Prerequisites:**appt as undergrad TA or grad st.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2019, Fall 2018.

**PHYSICS 651 Introduction to Solid State Physics II**

Transport, superconductivity, dielectric properties, ferroelectric crystals, magnetism, magnetic resonance, optical phenomena in insulators, nanostructures, non-crystalline solids, point defects, alloys, dislocations.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 551(P).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2019, Spring 2015.

**PHYSICS 651G Introduction to Solid State Physics II**

Transport, superconductivity, dielectric properties, ferroelectric crystals, magnetism, magnetic resonance, optical phenomena in insulators, nanostructures, non-crystalline solids, point defects, alloys, dislocations.

**Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 551(P).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2019, Spring 2015.

**PHYSICS 670 Electron Microscopy Laboratory**

Diffraction, imaging, and spectroscopy methods for study of morphology, crystallinity, and composition of solids in a transmission electron microscope.

**Prerequisites:**sr st; Physics 551(P) or cons instr.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2012, Fall 2009.

**PHYSICS 670G Electron Microscopy Laboratory**

Diffraction, imaging, and spectroscopy methods for study of morphology, crystallinity, and composition of solids in a transmission electron microscope.

**Prerequisites:**sr st; Physics 551(P) or cons instr.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2012, Fall 2009.

**PHYSICS 698 Research Experience for Teachers**

Enrichment of students' physics background. Work with faculty mentor to develop an innovative teaching program for use in students' own classroom.

**Prerequisites:**sr st; current teaching contract.

**Course Rules:**Open only to practicing science teachers with demonstrable expertise in physics. May be retaken to 9 cr max.

**Last Taught:**Summer 2010, Summer 2009.

**PHYSICS 698G Research Experience for Teachers**

Enrichment of students' physics background. Work with faculty mentor to develop an innovative teaching program for use in students' own classroom.

**Prerequisites:**sr st; current teaching contract.

**Course Rules:**Open only to practicing science teachers with demonstrable expertise in physics. May be retaken to 9 cr max.

**Last Taught:**Summer 2010, Summer 2009.

**PHYSICS 705 Molecular, Cellular, and System Biophysics**

Cell structure and the molecular basis for life. Molecular and cellular interactions. Supracellular organization, signalling, and communication. Self-similarity and cooperativity.

**Prerequisites:**grad st

**Last Taught:**Spring 2020, Fall 2017, Fall 2015, Fall 2012.

**PHYSICS 706 Biophotonics**

Biophotonics and bioimaging; overview of application of optics in biology and medicine based on the understanding of basic optics, spectroscopy, and imaging theory.

**Prerequisites:**grad st

**PHYSICS 707 Structural Molecular Biophysics**

Methods in molecular biophysics.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; major in science-based discipline & Physics 210(P), or writ cons instr.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2019, Fall 2016, Spring 2015, Spring 2013.

**PHYSICS 711 Theoretical Physics-Dynamics**

Lagrange equations, canonical formulation, principle of least action, normal coordinates, rigid bodies, special relativity, mathematical methods.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Math 321(C) or 322(C); or 701(C) or 702(C).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2019, Spring 2019, Spring 2018, Spring 2017.

**PHYSICS 716 Advanced Topics in Statistical Physics**

Systems of interactir particles; critical phenomena; transport theory; irreversible processes and fluctuations; model calculations for interacting systems of particles.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 515(P), 532(P).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2016, Spring 2010, Spring 2008, Fall 1999.

**PHYSICS 717 Gravitation**

General theory of relativity. Metric, covariant derivative, and curvature. Einstein field equations. Newtonian and weak-field limits. Gravitational waves. Experimental tests. Black holes and relativistic stars.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 517(P).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Spring 2018, Fall 2015, Fall 2014.

**PHYSICS 718 White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes**

Physics of compact objects; newtonian and relativistic stellar structure and stability; pulsars, x-ray sources; accretion disks; gravitational collapse; stellar-size and supermassive black holes; quasars.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 717(P) or cons instr.

**Last Taught:**Spring 2019, Spring 2017, Spring 2015, Spring 2013.

**PHYSICS 720 Electrodynamics I**

Maxwell's equations; Helmholz theorem; scalar and vector potentials; boundary value problems; plane wave solutions.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 711(P).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2020, Spring 2019, Spring 2018, Spring 2017.

**PHYSICS 721 Electrodynamics II**

Wave guides, radiation by charges; radiation reaction; radiation scattering, damping and dispersion; covariant formulation of electrodynamics.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 720(P).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Fall 2019, Fall 2018, Fall 2017.

**PHYSICS 731 Quantum Mechanics**

Mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics. Obserables and transformation theory, scattering perturbation, other approximation methods.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 532(P) & 711(P).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2004, Fall 2002, Fall 1998, Fall 1993.

**PHYSICS 735 High Energy Physics**

Special relativity applied to high energy collisions, experimental techniques, ionization and radiation at high energy, weak interactions theory, II-meson and strange particle interactions, ultra-high energy phenomena.

**Prerequisites:**grad st & Physics 732(P).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2011.

**PHYSICS 751 Solid State Theory I**

Phonons, plasmons, magnons, fermion fields and the hartree-fock approximation, and electron many-body techniques and the electron gas.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 531(P) & Physics 651(P).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2018, Fall 2015, Fall 2013, Fall 2011.

**PHYSICS 752 Solid State Theory II**

Dynamics of electrons in a magnetic field: energy bands, cyclotron resonance, impurity states, optical absorption and excitons in semiconductor crystals; electrodynamics of metals; green's functions.

**Prerequisites:**grad st & Physics 532(P) & 751(P).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2014, Spring 2008, Spring 2006, Spring 2002.

**PHYSICS 770 Electron Microscopy**

Kinematical and dynamical theory of electron diffraction. Transfer function theory of imaging. Electron and x-ray spectroscopies. Applications to surfaces and interfaces.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 551(P) or cons instr.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2011, Spring 2002.

**PHYSICS 775 Surface Physics I**

Survey of experimental techniques in surface physics research.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 515(P) & 575(P).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2016, Spring 2012, Fall 2008, Fall 2002.

**PHYSICS 781 Medical Radiation Physics**

Physical principles of the generation, interaction, detection, and measurement of radiation in medical applications; basics of radiation protection.

**Prerequisites:**grad st

**PHYSICS 782 Physics of Medical Imaging**

Basic theoretical knowledge of the physics of diagnostic radiology using x-rays, magnetic resonance, nuclear medicine, and ultrasounds.

**Prerequisites:**grad st

**Last Taught:**Spring 2010, Spring 2008.

**PHYSICS 784 Radiotherapy Physics**

Radiation physics for work as a hospital physicist, including accelerators for radiation therapy, quality characteristics of treatment beams, treatment planning, treatment techniques, quality assurance, oncology.

**Prerequisites:**grad st

**PHYSICS 786 Medical Physics Practicum**

Training with clinical medical imaging and therapy equipment, and dosimetry instrumentation.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 781(P)

**PHYSICS 801 Special Topics in Theoretical Physics:**

Discussion of recent research or advanced special topics.

**Prerequisites:**grad st & cons instr.

**Course Rules:**Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2016, Spring 2015, Spring 2012, Spring 2003.

**PHYSICS 807 Group Theory and Its Applications to Physics**

Representations of discrete and continuous groups, including rotation groups, unitary groups and crystal point and space groups. Symmetries of elementary particles. Molecular obitals, energy bands.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 532(P).

**Course Rules:**Counts as repeat of Math 807.

**Last Taught:**Spring 2018, Spring 2013, Spring 2005.

**PHYSICS 811 Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos**

Iteration of maps, numerical integration, strange attractors in dissipative systems, fractal dimensions, multifractals, entropy. Chaos in hamiltonian systems, perturbation theory, kam theorem. Quantum choas.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 711(P).

**PHYSICS 817 Gravitation and Cosmology II**

Experimental tests in gravitation. Gravitational waves: generation, detection. Spinning black holes. Cosmology: idealised cosmologies; present state of the universe; nucleosynthesis; inflation; recent developments.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 717(P) or cons instr.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2019, Spring 2018, Spring 2014, Fall 2011.

**PHYSICS 818 Advanced Topics in Gravitational Physics**

Topics depend on student interest. Initial value problem. Spinors and positive mass. Singularity theorems. Modern kaluza-klein theory. Approaches to quantum gravity.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 717(P).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2020, Spring 2016, Spring 2012, Spring 2008.

**PHYSICS 831 Quantum Field Theory I**

Group theory, canonical and path integral quantization, feynman rules, quantum electrodynamics, renormalization, quantum chromodynamics, electroweak theory, spontaneous symmetry breaking.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 732(P).

**Last Taught:**Fall 2017, Fall 2013, Spring 2000, Fall 1994.

**PHYSICS 852 Superconductivity**

Properties of type I and type II superconductors, bcs and ginzburg-landau theory, vortices, and flux dynamics.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 532(P) & 651(P).

**Last Taught:**Spring 2007.

**PHYSICS 853 Superfluidity**

Bose-Einstein condensation. Properties of superfluid 4HE, 3HE and 3HE-4HE mixtures.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 551(P) & 651(P) or physics 515(P).

**PHYSICS 854 Electron Phonon Interaction**

Wave propagation in metals. Interaction of electrons with the lattice in normal metals, superconductors, and magnetic materials.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 532(P) & 651(P).

**PHYSICS 900 Colloquium**

Lectures by staff and visitors on research in various areas of physics.

**Prerequisites:**grad st.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2017, Fall 2014, Spring 2013, Spring 2012.

**PHYSICS 903 Seminar in Theoretical Physics:**

Discussion of special topics of interest to research students in theoretical physics.Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: grad st & cons instr.

**Prerequisites:**Fall 2020, Spring 2019, Fall 2018, Spring 2017.

**PHYSICS 904 Seminar in Surface Studies:**

Special topics in the chemistry and physics of surface studies. Specific topics and any additional prerequisites announced in Timetable each time course is offered.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; cons instr.

**Course Rules:**Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max.

**Last Taught:**Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015, Spring 2014.

**PHYSICS 906 Seminar in Biophysics:**

Special topics in experimental biophysics. Retakable with change in topic to 9 cr max.

**Prerequisites:**grad st; cons instr.

**Last Taught:**Spring 2019, Fall 2018, Spring 2017.

**PHYSICS 990 Research**

**Prerequisites:**grad st & cons instr.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Spring 2020, Fall 2019, Summer 2019.

**PHYSICS 999 Independent Reading**

For the benefit of graduate students unable to secure needed content in regular courses.

**Prerequisites:**grad st, cons instr.

**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Spring 2020, Fall 2019, Spring 2019.