*Courses numbered 300-699 are Undergraduate/Graduate. Courses numbered 700 and above are Graduate only.*

**PHYSICS 408 Experiments in Linear Electronics**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Transistor and integrated circuit characteristics; electronic measurement and control. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(P).**Course Rules:**No cr for students w/cr in ElecEng 330(R).**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Fall 2015.**PHYSICS 408G Experiments in Linear Electronics**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Transistor and integrated circuit characteristics; electronic measurement and control. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(P).**Course Rules:**No cr for students w/cr in ElecEng 330(R).**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Fall 2015.**PHYSICS 411 Mechanics**- 4 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Kinematics, vector analysis, conservation laws, oscillations, variational methods, chaos, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(NP).**Last Taught:**Spring 2021, Spring 2020.**PHYSICS 411G Mechanics**- 4 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Kinematics, vector analysis, conservation laws, oscillations, variational methods, chaos, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(NP).**Last Taught:**Spring 2021, Spring 2020.**PHYSICS 420 Electricity and Magnetism I**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Electrostatics, capacitance, boundary value problems, mulipole expansion, dielectrics, magnetostatics, vector potential, magnetic properties of matter, motional emf, inductance, Maxwell's equations in differential form. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(NP); a grade of B- or better in Math 321(P); or Math 321(P) and a grade of B- or better in Physics 370(P); or grad st.**Course Rules:**Counts as repeat of 2 cr of Physics 421.**Last Taught:**Fall 2021, Fall 2020.**PHYSICS 420G Electricity and Magnetism I**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Electrostatics, capacitance, boundary value problems, mulipole expansion, dielectrics, magnetostatics, vector potential, magnetic properties of matter, motional emf, inductance, Maxwell's equations in differential form. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(NP); a grade of B- or better in Math 321(P); or Math 321(P) and a grade of B- or better in Physics 370(P); or grad st.**Course Rules:**Counts as repeat of 2 cr of Physics 421.**Last Taught:**Fall 2021, Fall 2020.**PHYSICS 422 Electricity and Magnetism II**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Conservation laws in electrodynamics, Maxwell's stress tensor, electromagnetic waves, absorption, dispersion, reflection and transmission of plane electromagnetic waves, wave guides, retarded potentials, radiation, electrodynamics and relativity. **Prerequisites:**jr st, C or better in PHYSICS 420(P); or grad st.**Course Rules:**Counts as repeat of 2 cr of PHYSICS 421.**Last Taught:**Spring 2021.**PHYSICS 422G Electricity and Magnetism II**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Conservation laws in electrodynamics, Maxwell's stress tensor, electromagnetic waves, absorption, dispersion, reflection and transmission of plane electromagnetic waves, wave guides, retarded potentials, radiation, electrodynamics and relativity. **Prerequisites:**jr st, C or better in PHYSICS 420(P); or grad st.**Course Rules:**Counts as repeat of 2 cr of PHYSICS 421.**Last Taught:**Spring 2021.**PHYSICS 441 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics I**- 4 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Historical background and experimental basis, De Broglie waves, correspondence principle, uncertainty principle, Schroedinger equation; hydrogen atom, electron spin, Pauli Principle, applications of wave mechanics. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 309(NP); Math 321(C).**Last Taught:**Fall 2021.**PHYSICS 441G Introduction to Quantum Mechanics I**- 4 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Historical background and experimental basis, De Broglie waves, correspondence principle, uncertainty principle, Schroedinger equation; hydrogen atom, electron spin, Pauli Principle, applications of wave mechanics. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 309(NP); Math 321(C).**Last Taught:**Fall 2021.**PHYSICS 442 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics II**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Continuation of PHYSICS 441, emphasizing perturbation theory and applications to multi-electron systems, including atoms, molecules, and solids. **Prerequisites:**jr st; C or better in PHYSICS 441(NP); or grad st.**Last Taught:**Spring 2021.**PHYSICS 442G Introduction to Quantum Mechanics II**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Continuation of PHYSICS 441, emphasizing perturbation theory and applications to multi-electron systems, including atoms, molecules, and solids. **Prerequisites:**jr st; C or better in PHYSICS 441(NP); or grad st.**Last Taught:**Spring 2021.**PHYSICS 497 Study Abroad:**- 1-12 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Designed to enroll students in UWM sponsored program before course work level, content, and credits are determined and/or in specially prepared program course work. **Prerequisites:**jr st; acceptance for Study Abroad Prog.**Course Rules:**May be retaken w/chg in topic.**Last Taught:**Fall 2014, Spring 1998.**PHYSICS 497G Study Abroad:**- 1-12 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Designed to enroll students in UWM sponsored program before course work level, content, and credits are determined and/or in specially prepared program course work. **Prerequisites:**jr st; acceptance for Study Abroad Prog.**Course Rules:**May be retaken w/chg in topic.**Last Taught:**Fall 2014, Spring 1998.**PHYSICS 501 Special Topics: Mathematical Models of Physical Problems I**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Selected topics in mathematics for study of the techniques and procedures for stating physical problems in mathematical terms and the physical interpretation of mathematical solutions. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(P); Math 234(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2021.**PHYSICS 501G Special Topics: Mathematical Models of Physical Problems I**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Selected topics in mathematics for study of the techniques and procedures for stating physical problems in mathematical terms and the physical interpretation of mathematical solutions. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(P); Math 234(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2021.**PHYSICS 502 Special Topics: Mathematical Models of Physical Problems II**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

More selected topics in mathematical models. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(P); Math 234(P). Physics 501(R).**Last Taught:**Spring 2007, Spring 2006.**PHYSICS 502G Special Topics: Mathematical Models of Physical Problems II**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

More selected topics in mathematical models. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 210(P); Math 234(P). Physics 501(R).**Last Taught:**Spring 2007, Spring 2006.**PHYSICS 515 Statistical Mechanics**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Brief survey of thermodynamics; statistical mechanics; classical and quantum gases. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 317(P) & 441(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Spring 2020.**PHYSICS 515G Statistical Mechanics**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Brief survey of thermodynamics; statistical mechanics; classical and quantum gases. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 317(P) & 441(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Spring 2020.**PHYSICS 517 Special Relativity**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Relativistic kinematics, the Lorentz transformation, tensor calculus, applications to motion of particles, electromagnetism. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 411(R) & 421(R).**Last Taught:**Fall 2017, Fall 2014.**PHYSICS 517G Special Relativity**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Relativistic kinematics, the Lorentz transformation, tensor calculus, applications to motion of particles, electromagnetism. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 411(R) & 421(R).**Last Taught:**Fall 2017, Fall 2014.**PHYSICS 531 Principles of Quantum Mechanics I**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Vector and Hilbert spaces; Schroedinger equation in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions; systems of many particles; symmetries; angular momentum. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2021, Fall 2020.**PHYSICS 531G Principles of Quantum Mechanics I**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Vector and Hilbert spaces; Schroedinger equation in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions; systems of many particles; symmetries; angular momentum. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2021, Fall 2020.**PHYSICS 532 Principles of Quantum Mechanics II**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Continuation of 531. Spin; hydrogen atom; variational methods; WKB approximation; perturbation theory; scattering theory; Dirac equation. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 531(P).**Last Taught:**Spring 2021, Spring 2020.**PHYSICS 532G Principles of Quantum Mechanics II**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Continuation of 531. Spin; hydrogen atom; variational methods; WKB approximation; perturbation theory; scattering theory; Dirac equation. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 531(P).**Last Taught:**Spring 2021, Spring 2020.**PHYSICS 541 Elementary Particles**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Accelerators and detectors; special unitary groups; quark model of hadrons; Feynman diagrams; electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions of quarks and leptons; Higgs boson. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2011, Fall 2009.**PHYSICS 541G Elementary Particles**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Accelerators and detectors; special unitary groups; quark model of hadrons; Feynman diagrams; electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions of quarks and leptons; Higgs boson. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2011, Fall 2009.**PHYSICS 551 Introduction to Solid State Physics I**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Crystal structure, reciprocal lattice; crystal binding; elastic waves; phonons, lattice vibrations; thermal properties of insulators; free electron Fermi gas. Band structure; semiconductor crystals; Fermi surface. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P) or cons instr.**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Fall 2018.**PHYSICS 551G Introduction to Solid State Physics I**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Crystal structure, reciprocal lattice; crystal binding; elastic waves; phonons, lattice vibrations; thermal properties of insulators; free electron Fermi gas. Band structure; semiconductor crystals; Fermi surface. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P) or cons instr.**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Fall 2018.**PHYSICS 575 Vacuum Science and Technology**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Viscous and molecular flow, vacuum materials and seals, metal-to-ceramic seals, evaporation and vapor pressures, vacuum pumps, vacuum gauges, mass spectrographs, chemical reactions at surfaces, outgassing. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P).**Last Taught:**Spring 2011, Fall 2003.**PHYSICS 575G Vacuum Science and Technology**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Viscous and molecular flow, vacuum materials and seals, metal-to-ceramic seals, evaporation and vapor pressures, vacuum pumps, vacuum gauges, mass spectrographs, chemical reactions at surfaces, outgassing. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 441(P).**Last Taught:**Spring 2011, Fall 2003.**PHYSICS 610 The Art and Science of Teaching Physics**- 1 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Participants critique lectures, videotapes of experienced teachers, each other; address conceptual problems facing beginning students; gain familiarity with demonstrations, classroom technology; discuss their own classes. **Prerequisites:**appt as undergrad TA or grad st.**Last Taught:**Fall 2021, Fall 2019.**PHYSICS 610G The Art and Science of Teaching Physics**- 1 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Participants critique lectures, videotapes of experienced teachers, each other; address conceptual problems facing beginning students; gain familiarity with demonstrations, classroom technology; discuss their own classes. **Prerequisites:**appt as undergrad TA or grad st.**Last Taught:**Fall 2021, Fall 2019.**PHYSICS 651 Introduction to Solid State Physics II**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Transport, superconductivity, dielectric properties, ferroelectric crystals, magnetism, magnetic resonance, optical phenomena in insulators, nanostructures, non-crystalline solids, point defects, alloys, dislocations. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 551(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2021, Spring 2019.**PHYSICS 651G Introduction to Solid State Physics II**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Transport, superconductivity, dielectric properties, ferroelectric crystals, magnetism, magnetic resonance, optical phenomena in insulators, nanostructures, non-crystalline solids, point defects, alloys, dislocations. **Prerequisites:**jr st; Physics 551(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2021, Spring 2019.**PHYSICS 670 Electron Microscopy Laboratory**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Diffraction, imaging, and spectroscopy methods for study of morphology, crystallinity, and composition of solids in a transmission electron microscope. **Prerequisites:**sr st; Physics 551(P) or cons instr.**Last Taught:**Fall 2012, Fall 2009.**PHYSICS 670G Electron Microscopy Laboratory**- 3 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Diffraction, imaging, and spectroscopy methods for study of morphology, crystallinity, and composition of solids in a transmission electron microscope. **Prerequisites:**sr st; Physics 551(P) or cons instr.**Last Taught:**Fall 2012, Fall 2009.**PHYSICS 698 Research Experience for Teachers**- 1-6 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Enrichment of students' physics background. Work with faculty mentor to develop an innovative teaching program for use in students' own classroom. **Prerequisites:**sr st; current teaching contract.**Course Rules:**Open only to practicing science teachers with demonstrable expertise in physics. May be retaken to 9 cr max.**Last Taught:**Summer 2010, Summer 2009.**PHYSICS 698G Research Experience for Teachers**- 1-6 cr. Undergraduate/Graduate.

Enrichment of students' physics background. Work with faculty mentor to develop an innovative teaching program for use in students' own classroom. **Prerequisites:**sr st; current teaching contract.**Course Rules:**Open only to practicing science teachers with demonstrable expertise in physics. May be retaken to 9 cr max.**Last Taught:**Summer 2010, Summer 2009.**PHYSICS 705 Molecular, Cellular, and System Biophysics**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Cell structure and the molecular basis for life. Molecular and cellular interactions. Supracellular organization, signalling, and communication. Self-similarity and cooperativity. **Prerequisites:**grad st**Last Taught:**Spring 2020, Fall 2017, Fall 2015, Fall 2012.**PHYSICS 706 Biophotonics**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Biophotonics and bioimaging; overview of application of optics in biology and medicine based on the understanding of basic optics, spectroscopy, and imaging theory. **Prerequisites:**grad st**PHYSICS 707 Structural Molecular Biophysics**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Methods in molecular biophysics. **Prerequisites:**grad st; major in science-based discipline & Physics 210(P), or writ cons instr.**Last Taught:**Fall 2021, Fall 2019, Fall 2016, Spring 2015.**PHYSICS 711 Theoretical Physics-Dynamics**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Lagrange equations, canonical formulation, principle of least action, normal coordinates, rigid bodies, special relativity, mathematical methods. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Math 321(C) or 322(C); or 701(C) or 702(C).**Last Taught:**Spring 2021, Fall 2019, Spring 2019, Spring 2018.**PHYSICS 716 Advanced Topics in Statistical Physics**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Systems of interactir particles; critical phenomena; transport theory; irreversible processes and fluctuations; model calculations for interacting systems of particles. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 515(P), 532(P).**Last Taught:**Spring 2016, Spring 2010, Spring 2008, Fall 1999.**PHYSICS 717 Gravitation**- 3 cr. Graduate.

General theory of relativity. Metric, covariant derivative, and curvature. Einstein field equations. Newtonian and weak-field limits. Gravitational waves. Experimental tests. Black holes and relativistic stars. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 517(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2020, Spring 2018, Fall 2015, Fall 2014.**PHYSICS 718 White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Physics of compact objects; newtonian and relativistic stellar structure and stability; pulsars, x-ray sources; accretion disks; gravitational collapse; stellar-size and supermassive black holes; quasars. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 717(P) or cons instr.**Last Taught:**Spring 2021, Spring 2019, Spring 2017, Spring 2015.**PHYSICS 720 Electrodynamics I**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Maxwell's equations; Helmholz theorem; scalar and vector potentials; boundary value problems; plane wave solutions. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 711(P).**Last Taught:**Spring 2021, Spring 2020, Spring 2019, Spring 2018.**PHYSICS 721 Electrodynamics II**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Wave guides, radiation by charges; radiation reaction; radiation scattering, damping and dispersion; covariant formulation of electrodynamics. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 720(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2021, Fall 2020, Fall 2019, Fall 2018.**PHYSICS 731 Quantum Mechanics**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics. Obserables and transformation theory, scattering perturbation, other approximation methods. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 532(P) & 711(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2004, Fall 2002, Fall 1998, Fall 1993.**PHYSICS 735 High Energy Physics**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Special relativity applied to high energy collisions, experimental techniques, ionization and radiation at high energy, weak interactions theory, II-meson and strange particle interactions, ultra-high energy phenomena. **Prerequisites:**grad st & Physics 732(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2011.**PHYSICS 751 Solid State Theory I**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Phonons, plasmons, magnons, fermion fields and the hartree-fock approximation, and electron many-body techniques and the electron gas. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 531(P) & Physics 651(P).**Last Taught:**Spring 2018, Fall 2015, Fall 2013, Fall 2011.**PHYSICS 752 Solid State Theory II**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Dynamics of electrons in a magnetic field: energy bands, cyclotron resonance, impurity states, optical absorption and excitons in semiconductor crystals; electrodynamics of metals; green's functions. **Prerequisites:**grad st & Physics 532(P) & 751(P).**Last Taught:**Spring 2014, Spring 2008, Spring 2006, Spring 2002.**PHYSICS 770 Electron Microscopy**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Kinematical and dynamical theory of electron diffraction. Transfer function theory of imaging. Electron and x-ray spectroscopies. Applications to surfaces and interfaces. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 551(P) or cons instr.**Last Taught:**Fall 2011, Spring 2002.**PHYSICS 775 Surface Physics I**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Survey of experimental techniques in surface physics research. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 515(P) & 575(P).**Last Taught:**Spring 2016, Spring 2012, Fall 2008, Fall 2002.**PHYSICS 781 Medical Radiation Physics**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Physical principles of the generation, interaction, detection, and measurement of radiation in medical applications; basics of radiation protection. **Prerequisites:**grad st**PHYSICS 782 Physics of Medical Imaging**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Basic theoretical knowledge of the physics of diagnostic radiology using x-rays, magnetic resonance, nuclear medicine, and ultrasounds. **Prerequisites:**grad st**Last Taught:**Spring 2021, Spring 2010, Spring 2008.**PHYSICS 784 Radiotherapy Physics**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Radiation physics for work as a hospital physicist, including accelerators for radiation therapy, quality characteristics of treatment beams, treatment planning, treatment techniques, quality assurance, oncology. **Prerequisites:**grad st**PHYSICS 786 Medical Physics Practicum**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Training with clinical medical imaging and therapy equipment, and dosimetry instrumentation. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 781(P)**PHYSICS 801 Special Topics in Theoretical Physics:**- 2-3 cr. Graduate.

Discussion of recent research or advanced special topics. **Prerequisites:**grad st & cons instr.**Course Rules:**Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max.**Last Taught:**Fall 2021, Fall 2016, Spring 2015, Spring 2012.**PHYSICS 807 Group Theory and Its Applications to Physics**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Representations of discrete and continuous groups, including rotation groups, unitary groups and crystal point and space groups. Symmetries of elementary particles. Molecular obitals, energy bands. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 532(P).**Course Rules:**Counts as repeat of Math 807.**Last Taught:**Spring 2021, Spring 2018, Spring 2013, Spring 2005.**PHYSICS 811 Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Iteration of maps, numerical integration, strange attractors in dissipative systems, fractal dimensions, multifractals, entropy. Chaos in hamiltonian systems, perturbation theory, kam theorem. Quantum choas. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 711(P).**PHYSICS 817 Gravitation and Cosmology II**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Experimental tests in gravitation. Gravitational waves: generation, detection. Spinning black holes. Cosmology: idealised cosmologies; present state of the universe; nucleosynthesis; inflation; recent developments. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 717(P) or cons instr.**Last Taught:**Fall 2019, Spring 2018, Spring 2014, Fall 2011.**PHYSICS 818 Advanced Topics in Gravitational Physics**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Topics depend on student interest. Initial value problem. Spinors and positive mass. Singularity theorems. Modern kaluza-klein theory. Approaches to quantum gravity. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 717(P).**Last Taught:**Spring 2020, Spring 2016, Spring 2012, Spring 2008.**PHYSICS 831 Quantum Field Theory I**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Group theory, canonical and path integral quantization, feynman rules, quantum electrodynamics, renormalization, quantum chromodynamics, electroweak theory, spontaneous symmetry breaking. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 732(P).**Last Taught:**Fall 2017, Fall 2013, Spring 2000, Fall 1994.**PHYSICS 852 Superconductivity**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Properties of type I and type II superconductors, bcs and ginzburg-landau theory, vortices, and flux dynamics. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 532(P) & 651(P).**Last Taught:**Spring 2007.**PHYSICS 853 Superfluidity**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Bose-Einstein condensation. Properties of superfluid 4HE, 3HE and 3HE-4HE mixtures. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 551(P) & 651(P) or physics 515(P).**PHYSICS 854 Electron Phonon Interaction**- 3 cr. Graduate.

Wave propagation in metals. Interaction of electrons with the lattice in normal metals, superconductors, and magnetic materials. **Prerequisites:**grad st; Physics 532(P) & 651(P).**PHYSICS 900 Colloquium**- 1 cr. Graduate.

Lectures by staff and visitors on research in various areas of physics. **Prerequisites:**grad st.**Last Taught:**Fall 2017, Fall 2014, Spring 2013, Spring 2012.**PHYSICS 903 Seminar in Theoretical Physics:**- 1-3 cr. Graduate.

Discussion of special topics of interest to research students in theoretical physics.Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: grad st & cons instr. **Prerequisites:**Fall 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2020, Spring 2019.**PHYSICS 904 Seminar in Surface Studies:**- 1-3 cr. Graduate.

Special topics in the chemistry and physics of surface studies. Specific topics and any additional prerequisites announced in Timetable each time course is offered. **Prerequisites:**grad st; cons instr.**Course Rules:**Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max.**Last Taught:**Spring 2017, Spring 2016, Spring 2015, Spring 2014.**PHYSICS 906 Seminar in Biophysics:**- 1-3 cr. Graduate.

Special topics in experimental biophysics. Retakable with change in topic to 9 cr max. **Prerequisites:**grad st; cons instr.**Last Taught:**Spring 2021, Spring 2019, Fall 2018, Spring 2017.**PHYSICS 990 Research**- 1-9 cr. Graduate.
**Prerequisites:**grad st & cons instr.**Last Taught:**Fall 2021, Summer 2021, Spring 2021, Fall 2020.**PHYSICS 999 Independent Reading**- 1-3 cr. Graduate.

For the benefit of graduate students unable to secure needed content in regular courses. **Prerequisites:**grad st, cons instr.**Last Taught:**Fall 2021, Fall 2020, Spring 2020, Fall 2019.