*Courses numbered 300-699 are Undergraduate/Graduate. Courses numbered 700 and above are Graduate only.*

**PHYSICS 408**- Experiments in Linear Electronics (3 units; U/G)- Transistor and integrated circuit characteristics; electronic measurement and control. No cr for students w/cr in ElecEng 330(R). Prereq: jr st; Physics 210(P).
**PHYSICS 411**- Mechanics (4 units; U/G)- Kinematics, vector analysis, conservation laws, oscillations, variational methods, chaos, Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics. Prereq: jr st; Physics 210(NP).
**PHYSICS 420**- Electricity and Magnetism I (3 units; U/G)- Electrostatics, capacitance, boundary value problems, mulipole expansion, dielectrics, magnetostatics, vector potential, magnetic properties of matter, motional emf, inductance, Maxwell's equations in differential form. Counts as repeat of 2 cr of Physics 421. Prereq: jr st; Physics 210(NP); a grade of B- or better in Math 321(P); or Math 321(P) and a grade of B- or better in Physics 370(P); or grad st.
**PHYSICS 420G**- Electricity and Magnetism I (3 units; U/G)- Electrostatics, capacitance, boundary value problems, mulipole expansion, dielectrics, magnetostatics, vector potential, magnetic properties of matter, motional emf, inductance, Maxwell's equations in differential form. Counts as repeat of 2 cr of Physics 421. Prereq: jr st; Physics 210(NP); a grade of B- or better in Math 321(P); or Math 321(P) and a grade of B- or better in Physics 370(P); or grad st.
**PHYSICS 422**- Electricity and Magnetism II (3 units; U/G)- Conservation laws in electrodynamics, Maxwell's stress tensor, electromagnetic waves, absorption, dispersion, reflection and transmission of plane electromagnetic waves, wave guides, retarded potentials, radiation, electrodynamics and relativity. Counts as repeat of 2 cr of Physics 421. Prereq: jr st, Physics 420(P); or grad st.
**PHYSICS 441**- Introduction to Quantum Mechanics I (4 units; U/G)- Historical background and experimental basis, De Broglie waves, correspondence principle, uncertainty principle, Schroedinger equation; hydrogen atom, electron spin, Pauli Principle, applications of wave mechanics. Prereq: jr st; Physics 309(NP); Math 321(C).
**PHYSICS 442**- Introduction to Quantum Mechanics II (3 units; U/G)- Continuation of Physics 441, emphasizing perturbation theory and applications to multi-electron systems, including atoms, molecules, and solids. Prereq: jr st; Physics 441(NP).
**PHYSICS 463**- Introduction to Atmospheric Physics (3 units; U/G)- Atmospheric phenomena not directly linked with the general circulation: refraction and scattering, visibility, radiation transfers, optics, aerosols and cloud particles, acoustics, radar, atmospheric electricity. Not available for grad cr at this time. Prereq: jr st; Physics 210(P), Math 232(P), or Atm Sci 350(P).
**PHYSICS 497**- Study Abroad: (1-12 units; U/G)- Designed to enroll students in UWM sponsored program before course work level, content, and credits are determined and/or in specially prepared program course work. May be retaken w/chg in topic. Prereq: jr st; acceptance for Study Abroad Prog.
**PHYSICS 501**- Special Topics: Mathematical Models of Physical Problems I (3 units; U/G)- Selected topics in mathematics for study of the techniques and procedures for stating physical problems in mathematical terms and the physical interpretation of mathematical solutions. Prereq: jr st; Physics 210(P); Math 234(P).
**PHYSICS 501G**- Special Topics: Mathematical Models of Physical Problems I (3 units; U/G)- Selected topics in mathematics for study of the techniques and procedures for stating physical problems in mathematical terms and the physical interpretation of mathematical solutions. Prereq: jr st; Physics 210(P); Math 234(P).
**PHYSICS 502**- Special Topics: Mathematical Models of Physical Problems II (3 units; U/G)- More selected topics in mathematical models. Prereq: jr st; Physics 210(P); Math 234(P). Physics 501(R).
**PHYSICS 515**- Statistical Mechanics (3 units; U/G)- Brief survey of thermodynamics; statistical mechanics; classical and quantum gases. Prereq: jr st; Physics 317(P) & 441(P).
**PHYSICS 515G**- Statistical Mechanics (3 units; U/G)- Brief survey of thermodynamics; statistical mechanics; classical and quantum gases. Prereq: jr st; Physics 317(P) & 441(P).
**PHYSICS 517**- Special Relativity (3 units; U/G)- Relativistic kinematics, the Lorentz transformation, tensor calculus, applications to motion of particles, electromagnetism. Prereq: jr st; Physics 411(R) & 421(R).
**PHYSICS 517G**- Special Relativity (3 units; U/G)- Relativistic kinematics, the Lorentz transformation, tensor calculus, applications to motion of particles, electromagnetism. Prereq: jr st; Physics 411(R) & 421(R).
**PHYSICS 531**- Principles of Quantum Mechanics I (3 units; U/G)- Vector and Hilbert spaces; Schroedinger equation in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions; systems of many particles; symmetries; angular momentum. Prereq: jr st; Physics 441(P).
**PHYSICS 531G**- Principles of Quantum Mechanics I (3 units; U/G)- Vector and Hilbert spaces; Schroedinger equation in 1, 2, and 3 dimensions; systems of many particles; symmetries; angular momentum. Prereq: jr st; Physics 441(P).
**PHYSICS 532**- Principles of Quantum Mechanics II (3 units; U/G)- Continuation of 531. Spin; hydrogen atom; variational methods; WKB approximation; perturbation theory; scattering theory; Dirac equation. Prereq: jr st; Physics 531(P).
**PHYSICS 541**- Elementary Particles (3 units; U/G)- Accelerators and detectors; special unitary groups; quark model of hadrons; Feynman diagrams; electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions of quarks and leptons; Higgs boson. Prereq: jr st; Physics 441(P).
**PHYSICS 551**- Introduction to Solid State Physics I (3 units; U/G)- Crystal structure, reciprocal lattice; crystal binding; elastic waves; phonons, lattice vibrations; thermal properties of insulators; free electron Fermi gas. Band structure; semiconductor crystals; Fermi surface. Prereq: jr st; Physics 441(P) or cons instr.
**PHYSICS 551G**- Introduction to Solid State Physics I (3 units; U/G)- Crystal structure, reciprocal lattice; crystal binding; elastic waves; phonons, lattice vibrations; thermal properties of insulators; free electron Fermi gas. Band structure; semiconductor crystals; Fermi surface. Prereq: jr st; Physics 441(P) or cons instr.
**PHYSICS 575**- Vacuum Science and Technology (3 units; U/G)- Viscous and molecular flow, vacuum materials and seals, metal-to-ceramic seals, evaporation and vapor pressures, vacuum pumps, vacuum gauges, mass spectrographs, chemical reactions at surfaces, outgassing. Prereq: jr st; Physics 441(P).
**PHYSICS 610**- The Art and Science of Teaching Physics (1 units; U/G)- Participants critique lectures, videotapes of experienced teachers, each other; address conceptual problems facing beginning students; gain familiarity with demonstrations, classroom technology; discuss their own classes. Prereq: appt as undergrad TA or grad st.
**PHYSICS 610G**- The Art and Science of Teaching Physics (1 units; U/G)- Participants critique lectures, videotapes of experienced teachers, each other; address conceptual problems facing beginning students; gain familiarity with demonstrations, classroom technology; discuss their own classes. Prereq: appt as undergrad TA or grad st.
**PHYSICS 651**- Introduction to Solid State Physics II (3 units; U/G)- Transport, superconductivity, dielectric properties, ferroelectric crystals, magnetism, magnetic resonance, optical phenomena in insulators, nanostructures, non-crystalline solids, point defects, alloys, dislocations. Prereq: jr st; Physics 551(P).
**PHYSICS 670**- Electron Microscopy Laboratory (3 units; U/G)- Diffraction, imaging, and spectroscopy methods for study of morphology, crystallinity, and composition of solids in a transmission electron microscope. Prereq: sr st; Physics 551(P) or cons instr.
**PHYSICS 698**- Research Experience for Teachers (1-6 units; U/G)- Enrichment of students' physics background. Work with faculty mentor to develop an innovative teaching program for use in students' own classroom. Open only to practicing science teachers with demonstrable expertise in physics. May be retaken to 9 cr max. Prereq: sr st; current teaching contract.
**PHYSICS 705**- Molecular, Cellular, and System Biophysics (3 units; G)- Cell structure and the molecular basis for life. Molecular and cellular interactions. Supracellular organization, signalling, and communication. Self-similarity and cooperativity. Prereq: grad st
**PHYSICS 706**- Biophotonics (3 units; G)- Biophotonics and bioimaging; overview of application of optics in biology and medicine based on the understanding of basic optics, spectroscopy, and imaging theory. Prereq: grad st
**PHYSICS 707**- Structural Molecular Biophysics (3 units; G)- Methods in molecular biophysics. Prereq: grad st; major in science-based discipline & Physics 210(P), or writ cons instr.
**PHYSICS 711**- Theoretical Physics-Dynamics (3 units; G)- Lagrange equations, canonical formulation, principle of least action, normal coordinates, rigid bodies, special relativity, mathematical methods. Prereq: grad st; Math 321(C) or 322(C); or 701(C) or 702(C).
**PHYSICS 716**- Advanced Topics in Statistical Physics (3 units; G)- Systems of interactir particles; critical phenomena; transport theory; irreversible processes and fluctuations; model calculations for interacting systems of particles. Prereq: grad st; Physics 515(P), 532(P).
**PHYSICS 717**- Gravitation (3 units; G)- General theory of relativity. Metric, covariant derivative, and curvature. Einstein field equations. Newtonian and weak-field limits. Gravitational waves. Experimental tests. Black holes and relativistic stars. Prereq: grad st; Physics 517(P).
**PHYSICS 718**- White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars, and Black Holes (3 units; G)- Physics of compact objects; newtonian and relativistic stellar structure and stability; pulsars, x-ray sources; accretion disks; gravitational collapse; stellar-size and supermassive black holes; quasars. Prereq: grad st; Physics 717(P) or cons instr.
**PHYSICS 720**- Electrodynamics I (3 units; G)- Maxwell's equations; Helmholz theorem; scalar and vector potentials; boundary value problems; plane wave solutions. Prereq: grad st; Physics 711(P).
**PHYSICS 721**- Electrodynamics II (3 units; G)- Wave guides, radiation by charges; radiation reaction; radiation scattering, damping and dispersion; covariant formulation of electrodynamics. Prereq: grad st; Physics 720(P).
**PHYSICS 731**- Quantum Mechanics (3 units; G)- Mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics. Obserables and transformation theory, scattering perturbation, other approximation methods. Prereq: grad st; Physics 532(P) & 711(P).
**PHYSICS 735**- High Energy Physics (3 units; G)- Special relativity applied to high energy collisions, experimental techniques, ionization and radiation at high energy, weak interactions theory, II-meson and strange particle interactions, ultra-high energy phenomena. Prereq: grad st & Physics 732(P).
**PHYSICS 751**- Solid State Theory I (3 units; G)- Phonons, plasmons, magnons, fermion fields and the hartree-fock approximation, and electron many-body techniques and the electron gas. Prereq: grad st; Physics 531(P) & Physics 651(P).
**PHYSICS 752**- Solid State Theory II (3 units; G)- Dynamics of electrons in a magnetic field: energy bands, cyclotron resonance, impurity states, optical absorption and excitons in semiconductor crystals; electrodynamics of metals; green's functions. Prereq: grad st & Physics 532(P) & 751(P).
**PHYSICS 770**- Electron Microscopy (3 units; G)- Kinematical and dynamical theory of electron diffraction. Transfer function theory of imaging. Electron and x-ray spectroscopies. Applications to surfaces and interfaces. Prereq: grad st; Physics 551(P) or cons instr.
**PHYSICS 775**- Surface Physics I (3 units; G)- Survey of experimental techniques in surface physics research. Prereq: grad st; Physics 515(P) & 575(P).
**PHYSICS 781**- Medical Radiation Physics (3 units; G)- Physical principles of the generation, interaction, detection, and measurement of radiation in medical applications; basics of radiation protection. Prereq: grad st
**PHYSICS 782**- Physics of Medical Imaging (3 units; G)- Basic theoretical knowledge of the physics of diagnostic radiology using x-rays, magnetic resonance, nuclear medicine, and ultrasounds. Prereq: grad st
**PHYSICS 784**- Radiotherapy Physics (3 units; G)- Radiation physics for work as a hospital physicist, including accelerators for radiation therapy, quality characteristics of treatment beams, treatment planning, treatment techniques, quality assurance, oncology. Prereq: grad st
**PHYSICS 786**- Medical Physics Practicum (3 units; G)- Training with clinical medical imaging and therapy equipment, and dosimetry instrumentation. Prereq: grad st; Physics 781(P)
**PHYSICS 801**- Special Topics in Theoretical Physics: (2-3 units; G)- Discussion of recent research or advanced special topics. Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: grad st & cons instr.
**PHYSICS 807**- Group Theory and Its Applications to Physics (3 units; G)- Representations of discrete and continuous groups, including rotation groups, unitary groups and crystal point and space groups. Symmetries of elementary particles. Molecular obitals, energy bands. Counts as repeat of Math 807. Prereq: grad st; Physics 532(P).
**PHYSICS 811**- Nonlinear Dynamics and Chaos (3 units; G)- Iteration of maps, numerical integration, strange attractors in dissipative systems, fractal dimensions, multifractals, entropy. Chaos in hamiltonian systems, perturbation theory, kam theorem. Quantum choas. Prereq: grad st; Physics 711(P).
**PHYSICS 817**- Gravitation and Cosmology II (3 units; G)- Experimental tests in gravitation. Gravitational waves: generation, detection. Spinning black holes. Cosmology: idealised cosmologies; present state of the universe; nucleosynthesis; inflation; recent developments. Prereq: grad st; Physics 717(P) or cons instr.
**PHYSICS 818**- Advanced Topics in Gravitational Physics (3 units; G)- Topics depend on student interest. Initial value problem. Spinors and positive mass. Singularity theorems. Modern kaluza-klein theory. Approaches to quantum gravity. Prereq: grad st; Physics 717(P).
**PHYSICS 831**- Quantum Field Theory I (3 units; G)- Group theory, canonical and path integral quantization, feynman rules, quantum electrodynamics, renormalization, quantum chromodynamics, electroweak theory, spontaneous symmetry breaking. Prereq: grad st; Physics 732(P).
**PHYSICS 852**- Superconductivity (3 units; G)- Properties of type I and type II superconductors, bcs and ginzburg-landau theory, vortices, and flux dynamics. Prereq: grad st; Physics 532(P) & 651(P).
**PHYSICS 853**- Superfluidity (3 units; G)- Bose-Einstein condensation. Properties of superfluid 4HE, 3HE and 3HE-4HE mixtures. Prereq: grad st; Physics 551(P) & 651(P) or physics 515(P).
**PHYSICS 854**- Electron Phonon Interaction (3 units; G)- Wave propagation in metals. Interaction of electrons with the lattice in normal metals, superconductors, and magnetic materials. Prereq: grad st; Physics 532(P) & 651(P).
**PHYSICS 900**- Colloquium (1 units; G)- Lectures by staff and visitors on research in various areas of physics. Prereq: grad st.
**PHYSICS 903**- Seminar in Theoretical Physics: (1-3 units; G)- Discussion of special topics of interest to research students in theoretical physics.Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: grad st & cons instr.
**PHYSICS 904**- Seminar in Surface Studies: (1-3 units; G)- Special topics in the chemistry and physics of surface studies. Specific topics and any additional prerequisites announced in Timetable each time course is offered. Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: grad st; cons instr.
**PHYSICS 906**- Seminar in Biophysics: (1-3 units; G)- Special topics in experimental biophysics. Retakable with change in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: grad st; cons instr.
**PHYSICS 990**- Research (1-9 units; G)- Prereq: grad st & cons instr.
**PHYSICS 999**- Independent Reading (1-3 units; G)- For the benefit of graduate students unable to secure needed content in regular courses. Prereq: grad st, cons instr.