The forum for scientific discussions and work within ISB is provided by specific commissions and study groups. Commissions are created to focus on specific areas of research and to carry out studies in an operational fashion. Usually commissions will be funded from external sources or have reasonable prospects of such funding. Study groups exist largely to promote exchange of scholarship and ideas and views among their own members without involving funded operational activities. Both commissions and study groups may organise workshops, symposia and other scientific meetings as appropriate.