Courses

Digital Arts and Culture Courses and Electives

DAC 199 - Independent Study (1-3 units; U)
Independent work supervised by Digital Arts and Culture faculty or staff member. Written course proposal required prior to reg. For additional information, consult prog coord. Retakable w/chg in topic to 6 cr max. Prereq: 2.5 gpa; writ cons instr, prog coord, & asst dean for SAS.
DAC 289 - Internship in Digital Arts and Culture, Lower Division (1-6 units; U)
Application of basic principles of Digital Arts and Culture in business, organizational, educational, political, or other appropriate setting. One cr earned for academic work based on 40 hours in internship. Retakable to 6 cr max. Prereq: 2.5 gpa; cons supervising faculty member.
DAC 296 - UROP Apprenticeship, Lower Division (1-3 units; U)
Undergraduate research participation in a project developed with a supervising member of the faculty or staff. One credit for 45 hrs research. Retakable to 9 cr max in any combination of UROP apprenticeship courses. Prereq: acceptance to UROP; prior or conc reg in UROP seminar.
DAC 297 - Study Abroad: (1-12 units; U)
Designed to enroll students in UWM sponsored program before course work level, content, and credits are determined and/or in specially prepared program course work. Retakable w/chg in topic. Prereq: acceptance for Study Abroad Prog.
DAC 489 - Internship in Digital Arts and Culture, Upper Division (1-6 units; U)
Application of advanced principles of Digital Arts and Culture in a business, organizational, educational, political, or other appropriate setting. One cr earned for academic work based on 40 hours in internship. Retakable to 6 cr max. Prereq: jr st; 2.5 gpa; cons supervising faculty member.
DAC 496 - UROP Apprenticeship, Upper Division (1-3 units; U)
Advanced-level undergraduate research participation in a project developed with a supervising member of the faculty or staff. One credit for 45 hrs research. Retakable to 9 cr max in any combination of UROP apprenticeship courses. Prereq: jr st; acceptance to UROP; prior or conc reg in UROP seminar.
DAC 497 - Study Abroad: (1-12 units; U)
Designed to enroll students in UWM sponsored program before course work level, content, and credits are determined and/or in specially prepared program course work. Retakable w/chg in topic. Prereq: jr st; acceptance for Study Abroad Prog.
DAC 661 - Digital Engagement Seminar (3 units; U/G)
Production of a digital portfolio demonstrating achievement of DAC program learning goals. Prereq: declared DAC major; completion of 12 cr approved DAC courses.
DAC 699 - Advanced Independent Study (1-3 units; U)
Independent work supervised by Digital Arts and Culture faculty or staff member. Writ course proposal req'd prior to reg. For add'l info, consult prog coord. Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: jr st; 2.50 gpa; writ cons instr, prog coord, & asst dean for SAS.

Anthropology

ANTHRO 302 - Anthropology and Popular Culture (3 units; U/G)
Aspects of popular culture including music, information technology, tourism, and film, video, and museum-spectacles in light of anthropological theory. Prereq: jr st; grade of C or better in English 102(P) or score of 637 or higher on EPT.
ANTHRO 340 - Cultures of Online Games and Virtual Worlds (3 units; U/G)
Anthropological understandings of online games and virtual worlds including: conceptual foundations, current topics, methodological issues, and first-hand experience. Prereq: jr st.

Art

ART 118 - Digital Arts: Culture, Theory, Practice (3 units; U)
Introduction to electronic art and imaging. Focus on historical and cultural contexts, theoretical concepts and studio skills using imaging software. Prereq: none.
ART 212 - Introduction to Digital Studio: A/V Strategies (3 units; U)
Introduction to time based technologies for artists and designers; includes audio, video, and animation techniques. Surround sound, lighting, green screen, and visual effects are examined. Prereq: Art 101(P), 108(P), & 118(P); Math 102(C), or Math 103(C), or Math 105(C), or Math 108(C), or Math Placement Code 30, or cons instr
ART 218 - 2D Design Strategies (3 units; U)
Introduction to problem solving using the basics of drawing and elements & principles of design; includes composition & color theory. Not open to Art & Design and Art Ed majors. Prereq: none.
ART 221 - Introduction to Design (3 units; U)
Introduction to computer as design and production tool for graphic design, use software to create graphics, edit images and design complex layouts. Prereq: Art 101(P), 106(P), 108(P), & 118(P); or admis to Inter-Arts/IAT prog & Art 118(P); Math 102(C), 103(C), 105(C), 108(C), or Math Placement Code 30; or cons instr.
ART 309 - Issues in Contemporary Art: (3 units; U)
Lecture course focused on critical issues/theory in contemporary art and culture. May be retaken w/chg in topic to 6 cr max. Prereq: soph st or cons instr.
ART 312 - Intermediate Digital Studio (3 units; U/G)
Students investigate the relationship between concept, material, process, aesthetic, and context in artmaking. Then, students are encouraged to integrate digital and traditional approaches to production. Prereq: jr st & admis to Art & Design prog or IAT prog; & Art 212(P) or Film 222(P); or grad st; or cons instr.
ART 324 - Web Design (3 units; U)
Introduction to design for the Internet: information architecture, hypertextuality, creative and client-based sites, critical issues of Internet culture; fundamentals of markup languages, CSS, and software. Prereq: admis to Art and Design prog or pre-Inter-Arts/IAT prog, & Art 118(P); or grad st; or cons instr.
ART 325 - Web Design II (3 units; U)
Exploration of responsive design using HTML, CSS and prototyping tools/frameworks; focus on design for usability across devices. Prereq: admis to Art and Design prog or Inter-Arts/IAT prog; & Art 324(P); or grad st; or cons instr.
ART 327 - Digital Media Workshop: (3 units; U)
A concept oriented workshop in digital media. FineArt 327(351) & Art 327 are jointly offered & count as repeats of each other. May be retaken w/chg in topic to 6 cr max. Prereq: soph st, admis to Visual Art prog or Inter-Arts/IAT prog; or cons instr. See Schedule of Classes for additonal prereq.
ART 394 - Intaglio (3 units; U/G)
Studio work in intaglio; drypoint engraving, etching, relief-intaglio; aquatint, experimental procedures, color printing, development of personal graphic concept. Prereq: Art 291(P); or grad st & cons instr.
ART 426 - Motion Graphics (3 units; U/G)
Introduction to history and production of short-duration motion graphics (industry, Internet, titling, graphics, creative projects) using contemporary production tools (video editing, compositing, audio recording/sequencing). Prereq: jr st & Art 118(P); or grad st; or cons instr.

Art History

ARTHIST 111 - Entertainment Arts: Film, Television, and the Internet (3 units; U)
History of film, television, and the Internet. Focus on economic and aesthetic features of these media and interrelationships among them. Models for critiquing each form. ArtHist 111, English 111, & FilmStd 111 are jointly offered; they count as repeats of one another. Prereq: none.
ARTHIST 472 - History and Theory of New Media Art (3 units; U/G)
The history and critical theory of new media artworks, focusing on artists who utilize interactive technologies. Prereq: jr st.

Communication

COMMUN 313 - Human Communication and Technology (3 units; U)
Examination of the actual and potential role of technology in facilitating satisfying communication relationships. Prereq: jr st; satisfaction of GER English Composition competency req; or cons instr.
COMMUN 410 - Organizational Communication Technology (3 units; U)
Conceptual and analytical consideration of communication consequences and needs related to technological assimilation and designing work environments. Prereq: jr st; satisfaction of GER English Composition competency req.
COMMUN 413 - Rhetoric and the Internet (3 units; U)
Critical exploration and analysis of the internet as a communication phenomenon. Prereq: jr st; satisfaction of GER English Composition competency req.
COMMUN 440 - Contemporary Problems in Freedom of Speech (3 units; U)
Current legal and regulatory issues that involve freedom of speech. Prereq: jr st; satisfaction of GER English Composition competency req.

Comparative Literature

COMPLIT 135 - Experiencing Literature in the 21st Century: (3 units; U)
Critical study of literary forms (e.g. romance, comedy, short story) and their connections with other arts and media, such as cinema, TV, and music. May be retaken w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: none.
COMPLIT 233 - Literature and Film: (3 units; U)
Themes, styles, and ideology in cinematic and literary texts. May be retaken w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: CompLit 133(R).

English

ENGLISH 111 - Entertainment Arts: Film, Television, and the Internet (3 units; U)
History of film, television, and the internet. Focus on economic and aesthetic features of these media and interrelationships among them. Models for critiquing each form. ArtHist 111, English 111, & FilmStd 111 are jointly offered; they count as repeats of one another. Prereq: none
ENGLISH 214 - Writing in the Professions: (3 units; U)
Adaptation of writing to situations and requirements of specific professional writing genres, such as criminal justice, government, and environmental writing. May be retaken w/chg in topic; no cr limit. Prereq: grade of C or better in English 102(P) or score at level 4 on EPT.
ENGLISH 253 - Science Fiction: (3 units; U)
Selected works of literary science fiction by theme, type, period, or origin. May be retaken w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: grade of C or better in English 102(P) or score at level 4 on EPT.
ENGLISH 290 - Introduction to Film Studies (3 units; U)
Analysis of formal, thematic, and generic components of narrative, documentary, and avant garde filmmaking. English 290 & FilmStd 290 are jointly offered; they count as repeats of one another. Prereq: none.
ENGLISH 291 - Introduction to Television Studies (3 units; U)
The forms, images, and narratives particular to television. English 291 & FilmStd 291 are jointly offered; they count as repeats of one another. Prereq: none.
ENGLISH 294 - Game Culture (3 units; U)
Critical study of games, digital and otherwise; forms, conventions, and practices that inform design and reception of games; place of games in contemporary culture. Counts as repeat of English 380 w/same topic. English 294 & FilmStd 294 are jointly offered; they count as repeats of one another. Prereq: GER OWC-A.
ENGLISH 312 - Topics in Film Studies: (3 units; U)
Study of stylistic, generic, historical, or theoretical issues in film studies. May be retaken w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. English 312 & FilmStd 312 are jointly offered; w/same topic, they count as repeats of one another. Prereq: jr st; satisfaction of GER English Composition competency req; English 290(P).
ENGLISH 328 - Forms of Experimental Literature: (3 units; U/G)
Approaches to forms of literature that stress experimentation, innovation and the radical alteration of existing forms. May be retaken w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: jr st; satisfaction of GER Composition competency req.
ENGLISH 329 - Film and Literature (3 units; U/G)
Capabilities and limitations of narrative film and literature, emphasizing the distinctiveness of each artistic mode. English 329 & FilmStd 329 are jointly offered; they count as repeats of one another. Prereq: jr st, English 290(P), satisfaction of GER English Composition competency req; or cons instr.
ENGLISH 380 - Media and Society: (3 units; U/G)
An examination of film and/or television, with attention to the representation of class, gender, race, and nation. Subtitles vary. May be retaken w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. English 380 & FilmStd 380 are jointly offered; w/same topic, they count as repeats of one another. Prereq: jr st; English 290(P) or 291(P) or 6 cr in courses approved for hum breadth cr.
ENGLISH 431 - Topics in Advanced Communications: (3 units; U/G)
Seminar in the history, theory, or practice of professional, technical, medical, or science communications. May be retaken w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: jr st; satisfaction of GER English Composition competency req.
ENGLISH 435 - Professional and Technical Communications (3 units; U/G)
The process of communications development in business, industry, and government, with intensive practice and analysis of professional writing and publishing techniques and products. Prereq: jr st; English 205(P), 206(P), or 207(P), or cons instr.
ENGLISH 436 - Technical Documentation (3 units; U/G)
Theory, methods, and practice in writing clear, concise technical instructions; audience analysis, customer requirements, information architecture, training materials, web projects, and emerging technology discussion topics. Prereq: jr st; English 206(P) & 435(P) or cons instr.
ENGLISH 437 - Project Management for Professional Writers (3 units; U/G)
Major stages of the writing process in workplace contexts: research, analysis, project planning and management, document design, usability testing, and revision. Counts as repeat of English 437X. Prereq: jr st; satisfaction of GER English Composition competency req; English 205(P), 206(P), or cons instr.
ENGLISH 439 - Information Design (3 units; U/G)
Development of technical communication projects for external clients, applying theories from graphic design, usability, cognitive psychology, and technical communication. Prereq: jr st; English 205(P), 206(P), or 207(P), or cons instr.
ENGLISH 515 - Literature and the Other Arts: (3 units; U/G)
Critical study of literary works in combination with works from the other arts. May be retaken w/chg of topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: jr st; satisfaction of GER English Composition competency req.

Film

FILM 201 - Introduction to Experimental Media Arts (3 units; U)
Survey of independent media art production in film, video, photography and emerging media from the artist's point of view. Lectures, screenings, and workshops exploring ideas and techniques relevant to the making of personal statements. Prereq: none.
FILM 222 - Introduction to Digital Filmmaking (3 units; U)
Pre-portfolio studio in digital filmmaking and editing techniques. Prereq: admis to Pre-Film/Film prog & Film 116(P), 117(P); & either 114(214)(P) or 210(P); or admis to Inter-Arts/IAT prog & Film 116(P) or 117(P); Art 118(P) & Music 220(P); or cons instr.
FILM 255 - Introduction to Digital Arts (3 units; U)
Pre-portfolio studio in digital art practices. Prereq: admis to Pre-Film/Film prog & Film 116(P), 117(P); & either 114(214)(P) or 210(P); or admis to Inter-Arts/IAT prog & Art 118(P) & Music 220(P); or cons instr.
FILM 302 - Video in the Classroom (3 units; U)
Introduction to creative and technical processes of video making. Planning and production of topical video projects with small team of K-12 students and teacher. May be retaken to max of 6 cr. Prereq: none.
FILM 380 - Media Arts Module: (3 units; U)
Post-portfolio course introducing specialized production skills in film, video, audio or new genres. May be retaken w/chg in topic to max of 12 cr. Prereq: admis to upper level course per portfolio review or cons instr. In case of over-enrollment, admission based on gpa in major.

Fine Art

FINEART 313 - Programming for Artists I (3 units; U/G)
An introduction to principles and applications of computer programming languages within art practice. FineArt 313 & Art 313 are jointly offered; they count as repeats of one another. Prereq: jr st, admis to IAT prog or to Visual Art prog, & Art 118(P); or grad st; or cons instr.

Film Studies

FILMSTD 111 - Entertainment Arts: Film, Television, and the Internet (3 units; U)
History of film, television, and the internet. Focus on economic and aesthetic features of these media and interrelationships among them. Models for critiquing each form. ArtHist 111, English 111, & FilmStd 111 are jointly offered; they count as repeats of one another. Prereq: none.
FILMSTD 212 - Intermediate Topics in Film Studies: (3 units; U)
Stylistic, generic, historical, or theoretical issues in film studies. Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. Prereq: soph st or English 290(P).
FILMSTD 380 - Media and Society: (3 units; U/G)
An examination of film and/or television, with attention to the representation of class, gender, race, and nation. Subtitles vary. Retakable w/chg in topic to 9 cr max. English 380 & FilmStd 380 are jointly offered; w/same topic, they count as repeats of one another. Prereq: jr st; English 290(P) or 291(P) or 6 cr in courses approved for hum breadth cr.

Geography

GEOG 215 - Introduction to Geographic Information Science (3 units; U)
Geographic objects, their representation and analysis. Topics include special nature of spatial data; concepts of space, mapping, spatial relationships; and use of geographic information systems. 2 hrs lec, 2 hrs lab. Prereq: none.
GEOG 525 - Geographic Information Science (4 units; U/G)
Geographic and information theoretical foundations of geographic information science (GIS). Use of macro languages in a software project to expand GIS functionality. 3 hrs lec, 2 hrs lab. Prereq: jr st, & Geog 215(P); or grad st.

Global Studies

GLOBAL 202 - Introduction to Global Studies III: Globalization and Technology (3 units; U)
Globalization and information technology: history of and current trends in global transfer of technology; contemporary issues in information technology; media convergences and divisions. Prereq: none.
GLOBAL 351 - Language, Media, and Social Practice in Global Communications (3 units; U)
Explores the impact of global communications on languages and cultures; examines implications of globalization for technologically mediated forms of communication and related social practices. Prereq: jr st.
GLOBAL 500 - Global Studies Capstone Seminar: (3 units; U)
Integration of coursework in the Global Studies curriculum. Majors enroll in designated section for their Global Studies track. Not retakable. Prereq: jr st; declared global studies major; or cons instr.
GLOBAL 551 - Global Communications Capstone: Future Trends (3 units; U)
Global Studies-Global Communications capstone. Communication challenges that constitute & complicate global experiences; ways to respond in a manner that demonstrates competence as global communicators. Counts as a repeat of Global 500 w/same topic. Prereq: jr st; declared Global Studies major; or cons instr.

Information Studies

INFOST 110 - Introduction to Information Science and Technology (3 units; U)
Introduces basic issues in information science, including the nature of information, information policy, knowledge organization, information services, and the relationships between information technologies and society. Counts as repeat of InfoSt 110X. Prereq: none.
INFOST 120 - Information Technology Ethics (3 units; U)
Comprehensive overview of the current ethical issues in information and technology use. Counts as repeat of InfoSt 120X. Prereq: none.
INFOST 240 - Web Design I (3 units; U)
Uses popular authoring tools to cover the basics of organizing information. Counts as repeat of InfoSt 240X. Prereq: none.
INFOST 310 - Human Factors in Information Seeking and Use (3 units; U)
Overview of human information needs, seeking, and processing, including human factors in the design, development and evaluation of information services. Counts as repeat of InfoSt 310X. Prereq: InfoSt 110(C).
INFOST 340 - Introduction to Systems Analysis (3 units; U)
Theories, principles, and tools for planning, organizing, assessing, and evaluating information. Emphasizes the importance of user's perspective. Covers the various stages of systems analysis and outlines the appropriate methods for each stage. Counts as repeat of InfoSt 340X. Prereq: InfoSt(L&I Sci) 240(P).
INFOST 430 - Multimedia Application Development (3 units; U)
This course covers the basic concepts of multimedia and their applications in information services, including image representation and processing and multimedia information delivery. Prereq: InfoSt(L&I Sci) 310(P).
INFOST 465 - Legal Aspects of Information Products and Services (3 units; U/G)
Introduction to legal environment surrounding development and use of information products and services, including intellectual property, and issues specific to internet and other digital mediums. Counts as repeat of InfoSt 465X. Prereq: jr st.
INFOST 491 - Advanced Topics in Information Science & Technology: (1-3 units; U)
Advanced examination of emerging developments and research in information science & technology. May be retaken w/chg in topic to 15 cr max. Prereq: jr st; additional prereq announced each offering.
INFOST 674 - The Search Engine Society (3 units; U/G)
Critical examination of the role of search engines in contemporary society, including impact on information organization and retrieval, information institutions, information policy, law, and ethics. Counts as repeat of InfoSt(L&I Sci) 691 w/similar topic. Prereq: jr st; InfoSt(L&I Sci) 501(P) or cons instr.
INFOST 675 - Information Technology and Organizations (3 units; U/G)
Topical seminar, exploring the relationship between information technology (IT) culture, organizations and the organization of work, cultures, subcultures; sociology of IT work; enterprise systems; knowledge management; data mining and IT careers. Prereq: jr st.
INFOST 685 - Electronic Publishing and Web Design (3 units; U/G)
An introduction to principles of visual communications related to electronic media with emphasis on website development, electronic documents, and production and dissemination of electronic information. Counts as repeat of InfoSt(L&I Sci) 691 w/similar topic. Prereq: jr st.

Journalism, Advertising, and Media Studies

JAMS 101 - Introduction to Mass Media (3 units; U)
Overview of mass media from the printing press to the internet. Focus on media technologies, industries, content, and critical approaches. Prereq: none.
JAMS 111 - Gender and the Media (3 units; U)
How gender representations in popular media inform and construct our understandings of the world; gender in popular culture, including new media; critical analysis of representations. No cr for students w/cr in JAMS 460. Prereq: none.
JAMS 113 - Internet Culture (3 units; U)
Social, cultural, and historical dimensions of the Internet. Prereq: none.
JAMS 201 - Media Writing (3 units; U)
Techniques and strategies for writing that can communicate effectively with media audiences; emphasizes innovation and creativity within the constraints of good grammar and style. Prereq: satisfaction of OWC-A GER
JAMS 204 - News Writing and Technology (3 units; U)
Writing, storytelling, digital editing and production for journalism and documentary. Prereq: declared JAMS major or minor.
JAMS 231 - Publication Design (3 units; U)
Principles of print layout and design. Prereq: none.
JAMS 232 - Photojournalism (3 units; U)
The history of photography and the practice of photojournalism, including aesthetic, conceptual, and technical developments. Digital production and distribution. Prereq: soph st.
JAMS 260 - Contemporary Non-Fiction Media (3 units; U)
Overview of new and traditional forms of non-fiction media such as documentaries, web sites, and reality television. Prereq: none.
JAMS 262 - Principles of Media Studies (3 units; U)
Central issues and concerns in the field of media studies. Cultural study of media industries and production practices. Analysis of media texts and audiences. Prereq: declared JAMS major or minor.
JAMS 332 - Introduction to Digital Documentary (3 units; U)
How to film and edit quality documentary footage fit for client use, broadcast television, or film festival entry. Prereq: declared JAMS major or minor; grade of C or better in JAMS 203(P), 204(P), 242(P) or 307(P).
JAMS 336 - Media Graphics (3 units; U)
Production and analysis of mass media graphics, photographs, and illustrations. Prereq: jr st; JAMS major/minor or Digital Arts and Culture (DAC) status; grade of C or better in JAMS 113(P) or grade of C or better in ART 118(P).
JAMS 356 - Media Literacy (3 units; U)
Application of general semantics and other critical thinking principles to reporting methodology and news judgment. Prereq: jr st.
JAMS 360 - History of Mass Media (3 units; U)
Evolution of mass media in the United States; how technological, cultural, political and economic changes have affected the media. Prereq: jr st.
JAMS 361 - Media Ethics (3 units; U)
Practical application of ethical principles to controversies in print and broadcast journalism, advertising, public relations, and new technologies of mass communication. Prereq: jr st.
JAMS 399 - On-Campus Internship (3 units; U)
Professional internship in journalism, public relations, advertising, or other media. May be retaken to 6 cr max in combination with JAMS 600. Prereq: jr st, declared JAMS major, & cons dept internship committee.
JAMS 450 - Race and Ethnicity in the Media (3 units; U)
How popular media representations of race inform understandings of past and contemporary society; race in popular culture, especially new media; critical analysis of media content and forms. Counts as repeat of JMC 660 w/similar topic. Prereq: jr st.
JAMS 559 - Freedom of Expression in the Digital Age (3 units; U/G)
First Amendment, copyright, privacy, libel, and other legal issues in contemporary news, media, persuasive communication, and social communication. Prereq: jr st.
JAMS 562 - Media Studies and Culture (3 units; U/G)
Mass media and the production of culture; media industries, content, and audiences; focus on contemporary issues. Prereq: jr st; grade of C or better in JAMS 262(P).
JAMS 645 - Seminar in Health and the Media (3 units; U/G)
Theoretical frameworks for examination of media representations of health, illness, health care; impact of media consumption on health, illness; use of media in health promotion. Counts as a repeat of JAMS 660 w/ health-related subtitle. Prereq: jr st.

Music

MUSIC 327 - Analog and Digital Synthesis I (3 units; U/G)
Introduction to analog and digital electronic sound synthesis, recording and audio mixing, acoustics and electronic music history. Individual work in analog and digital music studios. Prereq: jr st, music major; or cons instr; Music 220(R).
MUSIC 328 - Digital Synthesis and Systems II (3 units; U/G)
Application of digital sound media and advanced midi; computing, synthesis, synthesizers, sampling, digital recording and editing methods. Individual projects utilizing the digital music studios. Prereq: jr st; Music major; Music 327(P); previous experience in computers & music; or cons instr.
MUSIC 680 - Special Studies in Music: (1-3 units; U/G)
Specific topic will be announced in Schedule of Classes when offered. May be retaken w/chg in topic to max of 9 cr. Prereq: jr st or cons instr.

Theatre

THEATRE 357 - Digital Audio Workstations for Stage and Studio (3 units; U)
Explore computer technology technology to create, manipulate, edit and render digital audio for performance and recording. Music, sound effects, synthesis, and MIDI are focus topics. Prereq: none, online course.
THEATRE 437 - Sound Design and Digital Editing (3 units; U)
Skill development in designing sound and using digital editing systems to create sound effects, sound-scaping and basic music composition for storytelling on the stage. Prereq: none.