Potholes on roads are a common problem in cold areas. These potholes are potentially a dangerous hazard on the roadways if they are not quickly repaired. Cold mix asphalt is widely used as a mainstream repair material but has weaknesses such as poor durability, potential environmental pollution, and high application temperature. On the other hand, many wastewater reclamation byproducts such as grit at water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) are directly landfilled instead of being reused. Therefore, a new patch material using grit as an additive was proposed and named grit assisted patch (GAP) which is based on the matrix of chemically bonded phosphate ceramics (CBPC). The goals of the proposed research are 1) to improve the GAP properties; 2) to characterize the practical properties of GAP; 3) to evaluate the GAP performance on traffic roads; 4) to compare greenhouse gas emissions between GAP and conventional patches; and 5) to refine the economic analysis.

Project Details

Project ID


Start Date
January 1, 2020

End Date
June 30, 2021

Focus Areas
Data Analytics, Modeling and Simulation
Durability and Sustainability
Economy and Policy

Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District
Marquette University

Research Centers
Institute for Physical Infrastructure and Transportation (IPIT)

Principal Investigator

Qin, Xiao
Director, Institute for Physical Infrastructure and Transportation (IPIT)
Professor, Civil and Environmental Engineering University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

Co-Principal Investigator