Low-cost real-time sensors are urgently needed for detecting various contaminants in water. We have developed a platform that can detect contaminants (e.g., bacteria and heavy metal ions) in the real-time fashion, on the ppb level. The breakthrough technology can be used for single point test (e.g., handheld unit) or in-line continuous flowing test. In addition, the sensor could be applied for continuous monitoring of water quality, resulting in early warning of water pollution to mitigate health risks.


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