“In the broader academic context, integrity is a concept rich with connotations that encompass understanding the minimal standards of compliance in research, the personal ethical decision-making processes of individuals, and ultimately the ways in which our institutions reflect the highest aspirations and broadest commitment on the part of the academic profession to the principles of truth, scholarship, and the responsible education of future scholars.”
— From The Project for Scholarly Integrity in Graduate Education: A Framework for Collaborative Action, Council of Graduate Schools, 2008
Ethics are fundamental to all university activities. Ethical behavior is crucial to maintaining the credibility and perceived value of our scholarship in the minds of our colleagues and the general public. To this end it is important that all scholars, from undergraduates to senior faculty, incorporate ethical standards, defensible behavior, and sound decision making in all of their academic endeavors.
Academic Integrity means honesty concerning all aspects of academic work. Students are encouraged to consult with faculty to develop:
- Correct procedures for citing sources of information, words and ideas.
- Ways to properly credit collaborative work with project team or study group members.
- Strategies for planning and preparing for exams, papers, projects and presentations.
- Alternative procedures for quiz/exam conditions in classroom environment where cheating has been observed.
“Research misconduct includes fabrications, falsification, plagiarism, and violations of requirements for the protection of human or animal subjects. It does not include unintentional error or honest differences in interpretations of or judgments about data.”
— Excerpt from University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Research Misconduct Policy (PDF)
It is the intent of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee to foster a research environment that promotes integrity in all research and that deals forthrightly with allegations of research misconduct. The policies and procedures established for the investigation of research misconduct are designed to protect both the accused and the accuser from detrimental effects, including loss of reputation, until the investigation is completed and the findings made public. This policy does not annul or replace any existing policy or set of procedures outlined in the UWM Policies and Procedures.
- Fabrication is making up data or results and recording or reporting them.
- Falsification is manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is not accurately represented in the research record.
- Plagiarism is the appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.
- Research misconduct does not include honest error or differences of opinion.
Protection of Human or Animal Subjects
Institutional review of human subject and animal research is housed in the Department of University Safety and Assurances, whose purview also includes environmental protection, health and safety, and risk management.
Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR) Training
Certain funding agencies now require researchers to receive training in the responsible conduct of research as a condition of financial support. The National Science Foundation (NSF) mandates that all undergraduate students, graduate students and post-doctoral researchers who receive financial support for research through NSF must receive training and oversight in the responsible and ethical conduct of research. Similarly, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) require RCR instruction for all trainees, fellows, participants, and scholars receiving support through NIH programs for research training, career development or research education.
UWM uses the online CITI RCR training system, which meets the requirements of these funding agencies and provides meaningful RCR training to our students, faculty, and staff. More information is available on the Office of Research website.