Carol Hirschmugl

 (414) 229-5748
 KEN 3053


Carol Hirschmugl studies the surface physics of adsorbates on epitaxial and bulk oxide systems, focusing on environmentally and technologically relevant problems. Investigative approaches include far and mid-infrared absorption studies and picoampere low energy electron diffraction to study low energy dynamics and structure at aqueous-oxide interfaces. In addition, Hirschmugl is developing a rapid chemical imaging technique using infrared imaging microscope coupled to an synchrotron source, which will be used to examine real-time biochemical changes in vivo.


Carol Hirschmugl received her BSc in Physics from State University of New York at StonyBrook in 1987 and her Applied Physics PhD from Yale University in 1994. She then received an Alexander von Humboldt grant to do research at Fritz Haber Institut, Berlin, from 1994 to 1996. In 1996, she was awarded the University of California President’s Postdoctoral Fellowship to work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Since 1997, Hirschmugl has been at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, where she is professor of the Physics Department and the Director of the Laboratory for Dynamics and Structure at Surfaces.

Professor Hirschmugl held visiting scientist positions at ANKA, FZK (Karlsruhe, Germany) in 2004 and at ESRG (Grenoble, France) in 2005. She has mentored seven REU students and one RET High school teacher during the past 4 years. Hirschmugl’s awards include Fellow of the American Vacuum Society “For longstanding instrumental and scientific contributions to synchrotron-based infrared spectroscopy and micro-spectroscopy, including its applications to surface science, materials science, biophysics, and cultural heritage.” (2014), three from the National Science Foundation and the Research Corporation Research Innovation award. Her research is currently supported by a UWM Research Growth Initiative award and a grant from the Southeastern Wisconsin Energy Technology Research Center.

Selected Publications

Krystofiak, E, Mattson, E C., Voyles, P, Hirschmugl, Carol J., Albrecht, R, Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, and Oliver, Julie A. “Core-Shell Structure of Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles is Not Necessary for Biological Functionalization and Activity.” Microscopy and Microanalysis.
Mattson, Eric C., Pande, K, Cui, S, Weinert, Michael T., Chen, Junhong, and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Investigation of NO<sub>2</sub> adsorption on reduced graphene oxide.” Chem. Phys. Lett 622. (2015): 86-91.
Pu, H H., Rhim, S H., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, Hirschmugl, Carol J., Weinert, Michael T., and Chen, Junhong. “A statistical thermodynamics model for monolayer gas adsorption on graphene-based materials: implications for gas sensing applications.” RSC Advances 4. (2014): 47481-47487.
Mattson, Eric, Cui, Shumao, Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, Chen, Junhong, Weinert, Michael T., and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Vibrational Excitations and Low-Energy Electronic Structure of Epoxide-Decorated Graphene.” Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 5. (2014): 212-219.
Mattson, E. C., Unger, M., Clède, S., Lambert, F., Policar, C., Imtiaz, A., D’Souza, R., and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Toward optimal spatial and spectral quality in widefield infrared spectromicroscopy of IR labelled single cells.” Analyst 138.19 (2013): 5610-5618.
Hackett, M. J., Borondics, F., Brown, D., Hirschmugl, Carol J., Smith, S., Paterson, P., Nichol, H., Pickering, I. J., and George, G. N. “A Subcellular Biochemical Investigation of Purkinje Neurons Using Synchrotron Radiation Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging with a Focal Plane Array Detector.” ACS Chemical Neuroscience 4.7 (2013): 1071-1080.
Liao, C. R., Rak, M., Lund, J., Unger, M., Platt, E., Albensi, B. C., Hirschmugl, Carol J., and Gough, K. M. “Synchrotron FTIR reveals lipid around and within amyloid plaques in transgenic mice and Alzheimer’s disease brain.” Analyst 138.14 (2013): 3991-3997.
Tobin, M., Pushkar, L., Hasan, J., Webb, H., Hirschmugl, Carol J., Nasse, M., Gervinkas, G., Juodkazis, S., Watson, G., Watson, J., Crawfors, R., and Martin, F. “High spatial resolution mapping of superhydrophobic cicada wing surface chemistry using synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy.” Journal of Synchrotron Radiation 20.3 (2013): 482-489.
Unger, M, Hirschmugl, Carol J., and . “3D spectral imaging with synchrotron Fourier transform infrared spectro-microtomography.” Nature Methods 10. (2013): 861-864.
Pu, H. H., Rhim, S. H., Hirschmugl, Carol J., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, Weinert, Michael T., and Chen, Junhong. “Strain-induced band-gap engineering of graphene monoxide and its effect on graphene.” Physical Review B 87.085417 (2013).
Hirschmugl, Carol J. “SR-FTIR imaging of the altered cadmium sulfide yellow paints in Henri Matisse’s Le Bonheur de vivre (1905-6) – examination of visually distinct degradation regions.” ANalyst 138. (2013): 6032-6043.
Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Patterning of oxide-hardened goldblack by photolithography and metal lift-off.” Infrared Physics and Technology 62. (2013): 94-99.
Schmidt-Patterson, C., Carson, D., Phenix, A., Kanjian, H., Trentelman, K., Mass, J., and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Synchrotron-based imaging FTIR spectroscopy in the evaluation of painting cross-sections.” ePreservation Science 10. (2013): 1-9.
Fogarty, S, Patel, I, Trevisan, J, Nakamura, T, Hirschmugl, Carol J., Wehlitz, R, Fullwood, N, and Martin, F. “Sub-cellular spectrochemical imaging of isolated human corneal cells employing synchrotron-based Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy,.” Analyst 138. (2013): 240-248.
Pu, H, Mattson, E, Rhim, S., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, Hirschmugl, Carol J., Weinert, Michael T., and Chen, Junhong. “First-principles studies on infrared properties of semiconducting graphene monoxide.” Journal of Applied Physics 114. (2013): 164313.
Clède, S., Lambert, F., Sandt, C., Kascakova, S., Unger, M., Harté, E., Plamont, M. A., Saint-Ford, R., Deniset-Besseau, A., Gueroui, Z., Hirschmugl, Carol J., Lecomte, C., Dazzi, A., Vessières, A., and Policar, C. “Detection of an estrogen derivative in two breast cancer cell lines using a single core multimodal probe for imaging (scompi) imaged by a panel of luminescent and vibrational techniques.” Analyst 138.19 (2013): 5627-5638.
Clemons, C, Sedlmair, J, Illman, B, Ibach, Rebecca, and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Chemically imaging the effects of the addition of nanofibrillated cellulose on the distribution of poly(acrylic acid) in poly(vinyl alcohol).” Polymer. (2013).
Pu, H, Rhim, S., Hirschmugl, Carol J., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, Weinert, Michael T., and Chen, Junhong. “Anisotropic thermal conductivity of semiconducting graphene monoxide.” Applied Physics LEtters 102. (2013): 223101.
Hirschmugl, Carol J. “in situ investigation of meteoritic organic-mineral relationships by high spatial resolution infrared spectroscopy.” Meteoritics & Planetary Science 48. (2013): A384-A384.
Mattson, E., Pande, K., Unger, M., CuI, S., Lu, G., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, Weinert, Michael T., Chen, Junhong, and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Exploring Adsorption and Reactivity of NH3 on Reduced Graphene Oxide.” Journal of Physical Chemistry C 117. (2013): 10698-10707.
Cui, S, Pu, H, Lu, G, Wen, Z, Mattson, E, Hirschmugl, Carol J., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, Weinert, Michael T., and Chen, Junhong. “Indium-Doped SnO2 Nanoparticle-Graphene Nanohybrids: Simple One-Pot Synthesis and Their Selective Detection of NO2.” JOurnal of Materials Chemistry A A1. (2013): 4462-4467.
Mattson, E, Aboualizadeh, E., and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Opportunities for Live Cell FT-Infrared Imaging: Macromolecule Identification with 2D and 3D Localization.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 14. (2013): 22753-22781.
Krystofiak, E., Mattson, E., Hirschmugl, Carol J., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, and Oliver, Julie A. “Multiple Morphologies of Gold-Magnetite Heterostructure Nanoparticles are Effectively Functionalized with Protein for Cell Targeting.” Microscopy and Microanalysis 19. (2013): 821-834.
Mattson, Eric C., Unger, Miriam, Manandhar, Binod, Alavi, zahrasadat, and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Multi-beam Synchrotron FPA Chemical Imaging: Impact of Schwarzschild Objective on Spatial Resolution.” Journal of Physics, Conf. Series. (2013).
Sedlmaer, Julia, Unger, Miriam, Hirschmugl, Carol J., and Illman, Barbara. “IRENI meets Matisse.” Microscopy and Microanalysis. (2013).
Nasse, M. J., Bellehumuer, B., Ratti, S., Olivieri, C., Buschke, D., Squirrell, J., Elicieri, K., Ogle, B., Schmidt-Patterson, C., Giordano, M., and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Opportunities for Multiple-Beam Synchrotron-Based Mid-Infrared Imaging at IRENI.” Vibrational Spectroscopy 60. (2012): 10-15.
Unger, M, Schmidt-Patterson, C, Mattson, E, Alavi, Z, Carson, D, and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Synchrotron-based Multiple Beam FTIR Chemical Imaging in Transmission and Reflection for Applications in Cultural Heritage.” Applied Physics A. (2012).
Mattson, Eric C., Nasse, Michael J., Kastyak, M N., Gough, K, and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Deconvolution and Spectral Reconstruction in Diffraction-limited Mid-infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging.” Analytical Chemistry 84. (2012): 6173-6180.
Cui, S, Mattson, E C., Lu, G., Hirschmugl, Carol J., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, and Chen, Junhong. “Tailoring Nanomaterial Products through Electrode Material and Oxygen Partial Pressure in a Mini-arc Plasma Reactor.” Journal of Nanoparticle Research 14. (2012): 744.
Chu, Shumao, Mattson, Eric, Lu, Ganhua, Hirschmugl, Carol J., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, and Chen, Junhong. “Tailoring nanomaterial products through electrode material and oxygen partial pressure in a mini-arc plasma reactor.” Journal of Nanoparticle Research. (2012).
Cui, S, Pu, H, Mattson, E, Lu, G, Mao, S, Weinert, Michael T., Hirschmugl, Carol J., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, and . “,“ Ag nanocrystal as a promoter for carbon nanotube-base room temparature gas sensors.” Nanoscale 4. Ed. Chen, Junhong. (2012): 5887-94.
Unger, Miriam, and Hirschmugl, Carol J. Microscopy and Microanalysis. (2012).
Cui, S, Pu, H, Lu, G, Wen, Z, Mattson, E, Hirschmugl, Carol J., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, Weinert, Michael T., and Chen, Junhong. “Fast and Selective Room-temperature Ammonia Sensors Using Silver Nanocrystals-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes.” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces. (2012).
Cui, Shumao, Pu, Haihui, Wen, Zhenhai, Mattson, Eric, Hirschmugl, Carol J., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, Weinert, Michael T., and Chen, Junhong. . 2012.
Riding, M, Trevisio, J, Hirschmugl, Carol J., Semple, K, Jones, K, and Martin, F. “A Mechanistic Insight into Nanotoxicity Determined by Synchrotron-based Fourier-transform Infrared Imaging and Multivariate Analysis.” Environmental International 50. (2012): 56-65.
Kastyak, M Z., Nasse, Micheal J., Rak, M., Hirschmugl, Carol J., Del Bigio, M R., Albensi, B C., and Gough, K M. “Biochemical label-free tissue imaging with subcellular –resolution synchrotron FTIR with Focal Plane Array Detector.” NeuroImage 60. (2012): 376-383.
Nasse, Michael J., Walsh, Michael J., Mattson, Eric C., Reininger, Ruben, Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre, Macias, Virgilia, Bhargava, Rohit, and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “High-resolution fourier- transform infrared chemical imaging with multiple synchrotron beams.” Nature Methods, Nature Methods 8. (2011): 413-416.
Mattson, E., Pu, H., Cui, S., Schofield, M., Rhim, S. H., Lu, G., Nasse, M., Ruoff, R. S., Weinert, Michael T., Gajdardziska-Josifovska, Marija, Chen, Junhong, and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Evidence of Nanocrystalline Semiconducting Graphene Monoxide During Thermal Reduction of Graphene Oxide in Vacuum.” ACS Nano 5. (2011): 9710-9717.
Chamberlin, Sara E., Hirschmugl, Carol J., King, Seth T., Poon, Hin C., and Saldin, Dilano K. “The Role of Hydrogen on the ZnO(000 ̄1)-(1×1) Surface.” Surface Science 84. (2011): 075437.
Mattson, Eric, Nasse, Micheal J., and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Hyperspectral Data Restoration in Synchrotron-based Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging.” Microscopy and Microanalysis, Microscopy and MIcroanalysis 16. (2010): 764-765.
Ratti, Simona, Olivieri, Camilla, Nasse, Michael J., Duranty, Edward, Burke, Rebecca, Giordano, Mario, Vogt, F, and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “In vivo chemical imaging and quantitation of microalgae using synchrotron- based infrared microspectroscopic imaging.” Microscopy and Microanalysis 16. Microscopy and Microanalysis, (2010): 740-741.
Nasse, MIchael J., Mattson, Eric, Gohr, Claudia, Rosenthal, Ann, Ratti, Simona, Giordano, Mario, and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Biological Kinetics under the Microscope – Pathological Mineralization, IRENI and invivo capabilities,.” Vibrational Spectroscopic Imaging on Biomedical Applications. McGraw Hill, (2010).
Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Structure of Graphene Oxide-Tin Oxide Hybrid Nanomaterials for Gas Sensors.” MIcroscopy and Microanalysis, Microscopy and MIcroanalysis 16. (2010): 1708-1709.
Mattson, Eric C., Nasse, Michael, and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Hyperspectral Data Restoration in Synchrotron-based Infrared Microspectroscopic Imaging.” Microscopy and Microanalysis 16. (2010): 764-765.
Walsh, M J., Nasse, M J., Pounder, F N., Macias, V, Kajdacsy-Balla, A, Hirschmugl, Carol J., and Bhargava, R. “Synchrotron FTIR Imaging for the Identification of Cell Types within Human Tissues.” AIP Conference Proceedings 1214. (2010): 105-107.
Nasse, Michael J., Mattson, Eric C., and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “First Results from IRENI – Rapid diffraction limited high resolution imaging across the mid-infrared bandwidth.” AIP Conference Proceedings 1214. (2010): 108-110.
Nasse, MIcheal J., Mattson, Eric C., Reininger, Ruben, Kubala, Tim, Janowski, Sebastian, El-Bayyari, Zuheir, and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Multi-beam synchrotron infrared chemical imaging with high spatial resolution: Beamline realization and first reports on image restoration.” Nuclear Instruments and Methods A, Elsevier 649. (2010): 172-176.
Chamberlin, Sara E., Poon, Hin C., Hirschmugl, Carol J., and Saldin, Dilano K. “The geometric structure of TiO2(011)-(2×1) by low energy electron diffraction (LEED).” Surface Science 603. (2009): 3367-3373.
Schennah, R., Hirschmugl, Carol J., Gilli, Eric, and Tysoe, Wilfred. “A new method for performing polarization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy of surfaces.” Applied Spectroscopy 63.369-372 (2009).
Nasse, M., Ratti, S., Giordano, M., and Hirschmugl, Carol J. “Demountable Flow/Liquid Chamber for in vivo Infrared Microspectroscopy of Biological Specimen.” Applied Spectroscopy 63. (2009): 1181-1186.